Sweet, juicy vitamin tomatoes in the greenhouse can be grown both for family and for sale - it's not a difficult thing, and under the power of any dac. Moreover, the harvest, even under the film design, it turns out at least 2.4 times more than growing tomatoes on the open soil. Yes, and fruits appear in the greenhouse 2 weeks earlier, and this is still not heated design. In addition, tomatoes in the greenhouse are less subject to such an unpleasant disease as phytoofer, and therefore the overall yield is solid. The only thing that will be preferably taking care in advance when growing tomatoes is about drip watering, it is very simple to organize. And all - careful care, following all recommendations, courage in experiments and complete trust in our site - and ripe, incredibly tasty tomatoes will delight just as cosmic harvest.
Rules of growing seedlings
Cultivation of seedlings is the most responsible stage. With it, it begins just planting tomatoes in the greenhouse and further care for them. After all, on how strong and healthy, the seedlings of tomatoes will be, and the final harvest depends. That is why at this stage you need to take maximum patience and attention.
Stage # 1 - Seeding
At first, the first 20 days the sheet system will not grow rapidly, but the next same period of time its growth will noticeably increase. And after 35-40 days from shoots, the leaves will grow strongly and in height, and the width. Here you need to do everything you need so that seedlings can not be too stretched:
- The temperature during the week is to keep 18 ° and 15 ° at night.
- Water seedlings only 2-3 times, under the root: for the first time with the appearance of all seedlings, next time in two weeks and the last time 3 hours before the transplant. Watering, by the way, you need to make water water 20 ° C.
- Almost every day the boxes with the seadade need to turn to the glass by the other side so that the seedlings do not pull out only one way.
The feeding for the period of growing seedlings is not needed.
Stage # 2 - quenching seedlings
Already in April-May, the seedlings of Tomatoes are traditionally hardened, opening the window in the room with her and day, and at night. And on warm days, when the air temperature is from 12 ° C and higher, pots with plants can be made to the open area, for example, to a balcony or terrace, sometimes even leaving at night under the film. It is only important that the soil during hardening has always been moistened so that the seedlings are not faded. As a result, a well-hardened seedlings will be a healthy blue-violet shade.
And 5 days before the seedlings of seedlings in a greenhouse, all plants are desirable to sprinkle with a bore mortar, in cloudy weather early in the morning. The calculation is such: 1 g of boric acid per 1 liter of water. This will help preserve floral buds on the first flower brush, and it means that the crop will be rich.
Rechazzle seedlings in a permanent place
It is also important to in the greenhouse where tomatoes will grow, the windows were not only from both ends, but also from above - this should be taken care of in advance, because Tomatoes during flowering will not cost without careful ventilation. Another rule - a greenhouse for tomatoes must necessarily be completely lit by sunlight, from morning to evening, and one of the bush nearby is able to reduce the harvest nearby. That is why to grow Tomatoes in a greenhouse, it is better to approach what all the details and nuances have provided.
Step # 1 - Preparation of Soil
Greeting in the greenhouse should only be done along, and the quantity is already counting depending on the width of its design. It is necessary to smash them another week before the seedlings landing, with a height of 40 cm, and a width of 60 to 90 cm. And the passage between the ridges themselves is more expedient to do about 60 cm.
Step # 2 - fertilizer beds
For each bed of clay or sublinous soil, you need to add to each sq. M. 1 bucket of peat, humidiation or wood sawdust. But if the beds are already from the peat, then they are put on the bucket of the turf, humid, sawdust or minor chips and half a grain sand. On top of everything else - 2 tbsp. Spoons of superphosphate and 1 spoon of potassium sulfate. Everything is well drunk.
Already before planting the seedlings of tomatoes, the prepared soil should be posed with a pink solution of manganese, taking 1 g per 10 liters of water, 60 ° at temperature. You need to water in liter in the hole. A good alternative to the manganese can be the preventive preparation "barrier", which is needed to breed by 10 liters of one bottle (0.25 liters) and pour on the floor of a liter of such a solution into each well, along the way spraying all the beds in the greenhouse.
Three 3 days before the seedlings of tomatoes in a greenhouse at a permanent place in each plant, it should be cut into 3 lower sheets - this will reduce the likelihood of diseases, will make ventilating more complete and contributes to the better development of the first flower brush.
Step # 3 - Rechazzle Seedlings
It is necessary to plant seedlings, which should be from 25 to 30 in height, it is necessary vertically, while falling asleep soil mixture only a pot. But the elongated plants seed up to 45 cm do not need to bundle - this is a common mistake, because the sprinkled stem will immediately give the roots and the growth of the plant will stop at all. That is why it follows the growing seedlings like this: in the hole 12 cm, the depth is made another hole, to the height of the pot, which is placed there along with the seedle. At the same time, it is necessary only to the second well, and the first will temporarily be open. And only after 12 days, if the overgrown seedlings of tomatoes takes on, the first well is falling asleep.
The tall tomatoes and hybrids are planting in the middle of the beds in a row, or in a checker, after 60 cm. If the distance is more, the harvest will fall half - verified by experience. After all, the free plant of tomatoes is always very branched, gives extra steps and floral brushes, and therefore the ripening of its fruit is significantly tightened.
As soon as the landing of tomatoes in the greenhouse will be completed, they can not be watered for another 12-15 days so as not to be pulled out in length.
Garter Technology for Supports
After 12 days after planting tomatoes in a greenhouse, all plants can already be started to be tied up to the grinding, to the height of 1.8-2 measure. Traditionally, tomatoes are formed into one stem, leaving 7 or 8 floral brushes. It is desirable to leave only the lower stepper with everything with one floral brush, and all the other steps from the roots and the sinuses of the leaves need to be removed as soon as they reach 8 cm in length. To do this, by the way, it is better in the morning when the steps are easier to have.
In order to prevent the random infection of healthy tomatoes from the patient plant, the steps are better not to trimmed, and we have breakdowns - so that the juice of the plant does not fall into the fingers. Pickles from steppers leave needed a height of 2-3 cm
Pollination of Tomatov flowers
In order for the greenhouse tomatoes, the fruits began, they need to be artificially pollinated - the bees are not found in this closed eco-system. That is why in the afternoon, in warm sunny weather, floral brushes need carefully, slightly shake. And in order for pollen to sprout on the pestle, after pollination it is desirable to raise the soil or sprinkle with water (small spray) on the flowers itself. And after 2 hours, the humidity will need to be reduced by opening the window and the door.
Vehicle itself in the phase of the flowering of tomatoes is extremely necessary, and it is very important to prevent condensate on film. After all, the rewarded soil significantly reduces the maintenance of sugar tomato and dry substances in the fruits of tomato and dry substances, which they become watery and sour (what we usually buy on the market).
That is why watering the cultivation of tomatoes in the greenhouse suggests precisely that, thanks to which the crop will be at the height, and the quality of the fruit themselves will not suffer:
- Before the flowering of plants, the seedlings should be water in 5-6 days, 4-5 liters per square meter.
- During flowering before the start of fruit, watering is already needed more abundant than before, 10-15 liters per sq.m.
Moreover, the water temperature should always be within 20-22 ° C - this is important. And it is possible to water only in the morning hour, and at no other time - only this can be prevented by the formation of a harmful to tomatoes of excessive humidity.
Full cultivation of tomatoes in the greenhouse involves 3-4 root feeders during the vegetation of the plants themselves.
The first is held 20 days after the seedlings landing on its constantly place. On 10 liters of water will need to take 1 tbsp. Spoons of nitroposki, 0.5 l liquid cowboat or 2 tbsp. Spoons of liquid fertilizer "Ideal" - 1 l for each plant.
The second feeding makes on the 10th day after the first: 1 tbsp by 10 liters of water. A spoon of organic fertilizer "fertility" and 1 hour a spoon of potassium sulfate.
And already the third feeding should be done 12 days after the second, taking on the same amount of water 1 tbsp. spoon of superphosphate or 2 tbsp. Spoons of wood ash, or 1 tbsp. Sodium humate spoon with 1 tbsp. spoon nitroposki. Watering plants need 5 liters per square meter.
Thanks to the vegetative feeding, the fruits of tomatoes will fall much more.
Harvesting and storage
If the cultivation of tomatoes in the greenhouse was produced in the winter, and the first fruits have already appeared in the spring, then their cleaning until summer should be done every 2-3 days. But from the summer to autumn already - daily.
It is also important to collect tomatoes correctly - without fruits, carefully folding in special boxes on trolleys. It is necessary to do it when the fruits themselves either in the pink degree of maturity or in red. Moreover, the first option is much more profitable, because after assembling the red tomatoes, the ripening of the brush is significantly accelerated, and therefore the fruits located nearby, unfortunately, the mass and pouring decreases.
And to store the collected tomatoes is best like this:
- Each fruit to fascinate into a soft paper.
- Tomatoes laid out in the drawer weathered with hay, upper peat or sawdust.
Or specifically purchase seeds of such tomatoes, which were specifically derived for long storage - up to 3 months and more. Hardworking, patience and care - and yields of tomatoes in your greenhouse will be the most nice!Rate article:
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Greetings. You know, the answer to the question: "How to grow tomatoes in the greenhouse?" I know from childhood. Grandfather with grandmother grown tomatoes both for themselves and for sale. We have always been on the table early tomatoes, and this is all because they planted tomatoes in the greenhouse with a seaside method.
And I would like to share with you the secrets of early and rich harvest. To tell you how to correctly grow seedlings and about her subsequent landing in a greenhouse. I will share family secrets to care for tomatoes and the fight with possible difficulties: pests and diseases. And following my recommendations, you will grow early yields of tomatoes. I propose to study and implement.
Why am I growing tomatoes seedlings in a greenhouse
I appeal to the cultivation of tomatoes in greenhouse conditions by weight of the reasons:
- The possibility of collecting ultraven and late crop - from the beginning of spring to deep autumn.
- The cultivation of tall bushes, poorly leaving at open ridges. It is such seedlings that give large fruits to 0.5 kg.
- The possibility of disembarking the crop thermal-loving varieties that no matter well in the harsh Russian conditions.
Greenhouse plants do not require additional care - all events are simple and familiar, even a newcomer.
When to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse
I define the readiness of tomatoes for moving to the following features:
- Height 20-25 cm.
- 8-12 developed real leaves.
- Formation of 1-2 inflorescences.
- Approximate age - 50-55 days.
I will introduce you with approximate terms.
Planting tomatoes by region
Rechazzle seedlings in heated glass greenhouses:
- Northern regions: beginning of May.
- Average latitudes: the end of April.
- Southern regions: Start-mid-April.
Moving to unheated greenhouses:
- Northern regions: the second half of May.
- Medium latitudes: the first decade of May.
- Southern areas: the end of April.
Landing in light film greenhouses:
- Northern regions: beginning of June.
- Average latitudes: end of May.
- Southern regions: Start-mid-May.
I advise you to navigate and on the specifics of a concrete year - a cold summer, warm spring, sharp frosts, a protracted thaw and so on.
Landing tomato on the lunar calendar
I will list favorable dates according to the lunar cycles for 2021:
- In January 2021, you can plant tomatoes on seedlings 2, 14, 17, 18, 20;
- In February 2021, 6 - 9, 11, 12, 14 numbers;
- In March, tomatoes are best planted 7 - 10, 15, 16
- In April, the best landing days for tomato 6, 7, 11 - 12, 17, 18.
- May when planting tomatoes: 2, 3, 8.9, 15 - 18.
The seedlings planted these days is developing strong, healthy, resistant to disease.
Overview of favorite varieties of tomatoes for landing in the greenhouse
I will introduce reliably proven varieties of greenhouse tomatoes:
- Major. Intemerminant high-yielding tomato. Fruits with a dense pink pulp, a pleasant smell. The variety is stable to adverse conditions and diseases.
- Miracle of land. Very popular landlords of high-yielding and raw variety. Saplings are tall, fruit - in the shape of a heart, very sweet. Some tomatoes can reach weights up to 900 g. Plants are resistant to sharp temperature differences, drought.
- Gondola. Mid-line, intederminant hybrid variety. Fruits weigh 150-500 g. The flesh is red, dense. Tomatoes are highlighted in excellent breast. They can be consumed fresh, salty marinated, as part of garnish and sauces.
- Kochava. Ultra-closing and high-yielding variety. Tomatoes are flat rounded, weighing up to 150-180. The first fruits appear on the 90th day of the plant's life. Saplings are distinguished by resistance to fungal diseases.
- Silhouette. High-yielding medium-eyed hybrid. The fruits of an unusual rounded-reinforced form with excellent taste. The variety is distinguished by resistance to adverse conditions.
- Dina. Mid-freed yields. Saplings are average, fruits are round, large (150-200 g), very sweet, interesting bright orange, rich in keratin. Grade is resistant to diseases and drought.
- Lelia. The recent discovery of breeders is a rapid and high-yielding tomato. The fruits are small (up to 100 g) with a bright red tasty flesh.
- Hurricane. Estimated fruit variety. The average weight of the tomato - 80-90 g. Suitable for consumption in fresh marinated, processed form. The first crop is collected after 85-90 days after disembarking.
- Long Keper. Late high-yielding grade. The medium height plant, fruits are large (up to 300 g), rounded. Tomatoes are perfectly ripening in the lying.
- Bull heart. Long conquered recognition of gargrin variety. Depending on the species, gives black, red and yellow fruits weighing up to 300 g, with juicy and fleshy pulp. The plant is distinguished by a record yield.
I never stop at one grade. I prefer to grow ultrafasted, the secondary and late, so that all summer on my table were delicious tomatoes. When choosing a tomato grade, I focus on the characteristics: yield, burning, ripening time, taste, the size of the bush, approximate weight, the size of the fruit.
How to grow crease tomato
A rich harvest begins with proper preparation of seedlings. I care about future landings with the purchase of seeds and breeding seedlings.
Preparation of seeds for sowing tomatoes
Seeds at the seedlings tentatively sieve from the beginning of February to the last numbers of March. Terms are based on varieties of culture:
- Early. End of March.
- Overhead. In continuation of March.
- Late. End of February.
If you do not want to spend time on the preparation of the sowing material, I recommend to procure the shipped seeds already processed by the manufacturer. They are put in the ground at once, dry. The rest of seeds requires simple preparation:
- Disinfection in the "Phytosporin" solution for 15 minutes.
- Soaking in a continuation of 15 minutes in the growth stimulator solution. I use sodium humat: ¼ teaspoon per 1 liter of water.
After such a simple preparation, seeds are ready for sowing.
Soil preparation for seedlings
Tomato seedlings do not require special soil - it will suit any fertile and loose land. I buy in the garden center treated from viruses, fungi and pests humus, turf. You can pay attention to special soils for grated and tomatoes. The "Living Earth", Tomato and Pepper, uses popularity.
Planting seeds to seedlings simple:
- In the bottom of each container, make recesses for the care of excess water, air access to roots.
- Push up in the prepared cups so much.
- Make a shallow (1-1.5 cm) grooves. If you have prepared boxes, keep the distance in 5-7 cm between them.
- Sweep the land heated water.
- Spread in the deepening of the seeds, fall asleep the earth, slightly construct the substrate with your hands.
- Close glass or clog the food film.
- Put the containers on the pallets.
Now you need to transfer boxes and glasses in a well-lit warm place, wait for the first sprouts.
The first seedlings appear in 7 days. By the 5th week of development, the garden is watching the plants to be pulled out - this is the time of their enhanced growth. The seedlings are kept in a well-lit place, daily turn the pot 180 degrees every day so that the seedlings do not stretch to the light.
Temperature mode is maintained as follows:
- First week. During the day - 16-18 s, at night - 13-15 C.
- Before dive. During the day - 18-20 s, at night - 15-16 C.
- After picking. During the day - 20-22 s, at night - 16-18 C.
- Before moving to the greenhouse. During the day - 18-20 s, at night - 15-16 C.
With irrigation, things are as follows:
- First irrigation - when sprouts appear.
- The second - after 7-14 days.
- Third - before picking.
- After picking - a weekly watering.
Use water heated to room temperature, and the plants are watered under the root.
After picking, you need feeding:
- In a week. 1 tbsp. Spoon nitroposk on 10 liters of water. Consumption: 1/2 cup of suspension on 1 bush.
- After 14 days. On 10 liters of water - 1 tbsp. Spoon of the preparation "Signor Tomato", 1 tbsp. Spoon of superphosphate. Consumption: 1 cup of solution per plant.
- In 2 weeks. On the water bucket - 1 tbsp. Spoon nitroposki. On 1 bush - 1 cup of solution.
The feeder is carried out after watering. If the soil is settled, the substrate is sleeping.
If you divorce seedlings in common boxes, at the appearance of 2-3 liters, seedlings are shown:
- Take the pot in a height and diameter of 8 cm, fill them with the same eversion.
- Sweep the land by a manganese solution (0.5 g per 1 liter of water).
- Peresoid only the strongest and strong seedlings.
When picking, you can burst too far seedlings on seeding leaves.
How to dial tomato seedlings: video
How to prepare tomato seedlings for landing in the ground
Already in April - May it is worth starting hardening:
- Explore the windows in the room where plants are located. Start from a few hours, gradually increasing the time of ventilation. Do not allow drafts.
- As soon as warm weather is installed on the street, transfer plants to the balcony. Start with a 2-hour walk and also gradually increase the time.
The tempered seedling acquires a characteristic greenish-purple shade. On the "walks" it is worth sending pre-political.
The last preparatory measure is the complaition of 2-3 lower sheet plates. In their place they leave short "hemp" (2-3 cm). This contributes to improved air circulation and good landing lighting.
Preparation of greenhouse for planting tomatoes
To the crossing of tomatoes, you need to prepare a greenhouse. I will get acquainted with the techniques that I use personally.
How to prepare the ground for planting tomatoes
Traditionally replacing the greenhouse soil once in the fifth anniversary. During this time, he has time to completely exhausted, even if you needed fertilizers.
First of all, in the autumn, I spend the disinfection of the greenhouse substrate with undergraduate means:
- A solution (1%) burglar fluid.
- Suspension (1%) of copper sulfate.
- Dolomitic flour (50 g per 1 m2).
Then proceed to the direct preparation of the Earth:
- Changing the lower warming reservoir - first the 10-centimeter layer of sawdust, dry needles or straw. From above - another 10-centimeter plate of overworked compost.
- I fall asleep the insulation litter of garden earth - it turns out an elevated ridge with a height of 30-40 cm.
- If the land is hardening, fertilizers are made under the people (per 1 m2): 3 tbsp. Spoons of superphosphate in granules, 1 tbsp. A spoon of potassium magnesia, 1 tbsp. Sulfate potassium spoon, 2 tbsp. Spoons of ash, 1 tsp of urea (replacement - sodium agriculture).
- If the soil is clay, loamy, additionally requires 1 bucket (per 1 m2) peat, humid and crushed sawdust.
- If the substrate peat, additionally contribute (per 1 m2) for 1 bucket of turf, humid, wood chips or sawdust, ½ bucket of large sand.
After such training, the greenhouse is fully ready for the spring view of the seedlings.
Tomatoes can be transplanted in a greenhouse when setting the temperature:
- Priming. Not lower than 13 s at a 10-centimeter depth.
- Air. 20-25 S.
If your greenhouse is heated, these conditions can be created at any time artificially - to plant seedlings early in spring and eat fresh tomatoes to late autumn.
How to plant tomato seedlings in the greenhouse
I will present the popular planting schemes of tomato seedlings:
- Little and rarely developing in 2-3 stems. Chess location: between rows - 50-55 cm, between plants in one line - 35-40 cm.
- Determinants, stramblies. Between the rows - 40-45 cm, between the bushes of one row - 20 cm.
- Giant. Schemes are settled according to the scheme: between the rows - 75-80 cm, between the tomatoes of one row - 55-60 cm.
I plan to change the transplant to a non-fit, cloudy day. I will present a simple step-by-step instruction:
- I do the wells to a depth of 40 cm.
- I spill a warm (50-60 s) suspension of potassium permanganate. On 10 liters of water - 1 g of mangartee. One well requires 1-1.5 liter of solution. Alternative - disinfection by the preparation "barrier". You need 250 g of money on 10 liters of water. The consumption per well is 0.5 liters of solution.
- Seedlings land with an earthen room directly in the liquefied earth. If tomatoes grown in peat glasses, do not take them out.
- Little plants land straight, overgrown - under a small angle.
- Tomatoes I have already formed inflorescences to the greenhouse passage so that they do not shade their neighbors.
- Each seedling falls asleep loose land, tampering her palms.
- In conclusion, a mulch is required - last year's compost, straw, sawdust, beveled and dried grass.
Some gardeners near each tomato leave a small well - it is convenient for economical root feeding.
Care of tomatoes after landing
After transplanting 5-6 days, Tomatoes do not touch - I give them time to adapt to unusual conditions. After a week, carefully loosen the soil around each bustle to improve air access to roots. Then you can proceed to periodic care.
How to water the tomatoes in the greenhouse
I want to talk in detail about the peculiarities of Tomatov irrigation:
- For this culture, we need relatively moderate but frequent watering.
- After each irrigation, necessarily loosening and venting.
- For water procedures, use water heated under the sun. Pour it in the morning in buckets, barrels, and apply hot for evening irrigation.
- Watering the plants is best manually with the help of the hose (with a small pressure) or watering can.
- Tomatoes are watered only under the root. Even the smallest droplets of water on the leaves can provoke sunburns.
I will present a graph of water procedures:
- After the transplantation of 7-10 days, do not water the seedlings. Otherwise, the development of the root system will be depressed, and the green part will deteriorate.
- Prior to the start of the fruit, the plants are shown frequent and abundant irrigation - 1 time in 5-6 days. One bush is needed at least 4-5 liters of water for one sitting. The soil must be well moistened at a depth of 15-20 cm.
- With the appearance of the first tomatoes, the watering is rapid up to once every 3-4 days. However, water consumption decreases - 3-4 liters per bush.
The fact that the plant suffers from thirst is easy to understand the twisted top leaves. And when the moisture is rebuilding, even young tomatoes begin to burst.
What to fertilize tomatoes in the greenhouse
Greenhouse tomatoes need 3-4 feeding for the summer season. I traditionally follow this schedule:
- 3 weeks after the transplant. On 10 liters of water - 1 tbsp. A spoon of nitroposki, 0.5 l of liquid cow manure. Under each bush - 1 liter of solution.
- 10 days later. On 10 liters of water - 1 tbsp. A spoon of superphosphate, 1 h. Spoon potassium sulfate. Approximate consumption: ½ bucket of suspension - per 1 m2.
- In 2 weeks. On 10 liters of water - 2 tbsp. Spoons of ash, 1 tbsp. Spoon of superphosphate. Consumption - 6-8 liters of fertilizer per 1 m2.
- At the beginning of the maturation of tomatoes. On 10 liters of water - 2 tbsp. Spoons of superphosphate, 1 tbsp. Spoon of potassium humate. Approximate consumption - ½ bucket of the mixture per 1 m2.
Such complex feeding is enough for harmonious development of the plant.
How to packing tomatoes in the greenhouse
As a rule, I spend the first steaming before moving seedlings or in the first days after the transplantation. At the scene of each step, I definitely leave a 2-3-centimeter "Penec". This is necessary so that a new process will not develop in its place.
I will present you the most important rules for steaming greenhouse tomatoes:
- Picture the processes with nails, disinfect the hands after each contact with the plants so as not to become a carrier of infections.
- Plan a procedure for morning hours - at this time the stalks are lighted easier.
- Passing frequency - 1 time per week.
- After the tomatoes climb, do not forget to attach all the lower branches. This is necessary to improve air circulation, the prevention of fruit rotting.
If you have a little seedlings, do not throw out the steps. Lower them with a tormented end of water - in a few days the most strong copies will be allowed root. They can also be planted in a greenhouse and wait for a small crop.
Gurild, planting tomatoes in the greenhouse, sometimes forget about important business - ventilation. The procedure is needed after each plant watering. Tomatoes are poorly transferred in high humidity. In such unfavorable conditions, the risk of disease with phytoofluorosis and other fungal infections is increasing.
I adhere to the next temperature mode:
- The initial period of development: day - 20-25 s, night - 16-18 C.
- Formation, ripening of fruits: day - 24-25 s, night - 17-18 C.
The level of humidity of the air must stably hold on to 60-65%. It is especially important to ventilate when flowering tomatoes. If condensate is formed, tomatoes will grow with tasteless, acidic and watery.
How to tie tomatoes in greenhouse
When planting seedlings, do not forget to install next to each back of the supports - trellis or pegs. If plants are a bit more convenient, the latter will be more convenient - use wooden rails, iron rods, trimming thin plastic pipes. The peg should be above the plants by 20-25 cm. For stability, approximately the same distance it is driven into the ground. Support is installed near the stem, the garter is carried out as needed.
If you grow tall tomatoes, it is best to install capital trellis. This will save and place in the greenhouse: 1 m2 will be possible to plant 3-4 plants. In the alarms, sturdy stakes with a height of up to 2 m are ripped off. Between them stretch every 35-40 cm wire or a strong rope. Between the supports they pass the younger tomatoes, forming a kind of "braid".
What difficulties may occur during the cultivation of tomatoes in the greenhouse
Greenhouse tomatoes sometimes overcome diseases and enemies. But pests and disease can be successfully resolved by preventive, "therapeutic" methods.
Fighting pests on tomatoes
I will introduce you to the most evil enemies of greenhouse tomatoes:
- Wires. To prevent the propagation of pests, about a week before the movement of tomatoes, build simple traps: Make around the perimeter of the pits, in which put and jump "kebab" on a stick - pieces of raw vegetables. After a few days, check the bait, and destroy the pests. Wirefronts can be found and collecting manually at deep soil resistance. Prevention of pest appearance - lime, making mineral fertilizers. When the omissions are dominated, the Bazedin Insecticide is used - according to the instructions, the powder with soil is mixed.
- Medveda. Pest eggs can get to the greenhouse when replacing the soil. In the initial pores, it can be effectively resistant to folk remedies: the infusion of red pepper (150 g per 10 liters of water), acetic water (2-3 tbsp. Spoons by 10 l) - in the mink of the pest poured about 0.5 liters of fluid. With a serious problem, contact the insecticides - "Thunder", "Medvetoks", "Grizzly".
- Bellenka. Before the start of flowering of tomatoes with a butterfly, it is effectively struggling with liquid smoke "Obay". If the whiteflink is completely flooded with a greenhouse, a spraying of the "phosbecide" suspension is 10 ml on 10 liters of water. Processing are made before or after sunset. To secure the result, the spraying is repeated twice with a break in 15-20 days.
- Caterpillar and butterflies-scoops. Anti-flying individuals are effective traps - jars with wandering kvass. The drink is bred by water (1: 3), add some yeast. The caterpillars are collected manually, the tomatoes are processed from them with an infusion of wormwood or potato tops. From the special preparations are effective "phytodeter", "Agravertin".
I advise you to periodically inspect the landing for pests. It is easier to destroy them in the initial stages by folk remedies than to use harmful insecticides.
Prevention of diseases of tomatoes in the greenhouse
I will present common diseases of greenhouse tomatoes:
- Fomoz (brown rot). Diseases are opposed by the disinfection of the substrate before planting, refusal from the fresh manure of nitrogen fertilizers. Infected stems, fruits quickly break, destroy. Plants are treated with "barrier" or "Fundazole".
- Gray rot. Problection Problection - observance of irregularities. If the disease made itself felt, the tomatoes are fed by Selutyra Calcium - 40-50 g per 5 liters of water. It is possible to make phosphoric-potash fertilizer or folk remedy - an olom solution (250 g of ash by 10 liters of water).
- Top rot. Prevention of disease - compliance with the right temperature regime, irregular graphics, timely depositing calcium feeding.
- Fusariosis. It is possible to prevent the disease, carefully referring to the seedle (the disease develops during the root damage), watering pre-heated water, warming the greenhouse soil before moving the seedlings.
- Mosaic. The sick bushes it is better to dig and destroy - affected by the virus, they will no longer be dense. Disease Prevention - Disinfection of seeds before seeding in 1% manganese solution. They also disinfect seedlings as they grow - 2-3 times with a break in 3 weeks. In 10 liters of water, 1 g of mangartee is diluted, used for irrigation.
Now you know "from and to" how to grow healthy and yield tomatoes in the greenhouse. The very first important stage is the breeding of seedlings. Do not forget about the preparation of a greenhouse for moving seedlings, prevention of diseases and pests. Remember that the royal harvest gives only plants, followed by well-care - on time and high quality, feed, trimmed and duskin.
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Grown tomatoes in the greenhouse are a natural source of vitamins, especially if we grow them independently without the use of chemicals. Tomatoes are used to prepare a set of dishes, because of this, each garden is engaged in the cultivation of this plant. The cultivation of tomatoes in the greenhouse is complex, since the plant is very capricious and demanding to growing conditions. However, to get a wonderful harvest can any gardener.
Proper preparation of greenhouse
Tomatoes are best cultivated in a greenhouse than in the open soil. Good care and heat that remains under the usual film will allow you to get from plants grown in a greenhouse, the harvest is several times more than with bushes that have grown on ordinary beds. Crowded tomatoes in the greenhouse is much faster.
Prepare greenhouse to landing tomatoes in the fall:
- You need to remove from the greenhouse all the remains of the tops and fruits. This will prevent the occurrence of various diseases.
- It is necessary to wash the greenhouse with soap solution.
- It is necessary to inspect the design for the presence of chips and rust. When corrosion detected, it is necessary to paint this place with a special composition so that the rhine does not apply further.
- It is necessary to process a greenhouse with anti-grab and antimicrobial composition. You can use a solution of copper sulfate or a smoke checker.
- It is necessary to switch the soil, removing a bit of the upper layer and the soil is shed with a solution of copper mood. At the same time, mineral fertilizers can be added.
Spring approximately 2 weeks before planting seedlings in the greenhouse, you need to overcoat the soil once again, remove weeds and add organic fertilizers. The beds make about 40 centimeters high and a width of about a meter. The passage between the beds should be at least half a meter.
It must be remembered that tomatoes love light and ventilation, so the windows should be in the greenhouse. In order for tomatoes enough light, you need to install a greenhouse on a well-lit plot.
How to grow seedlings and care for them
Cultivation of seedlings Tomato is the main stage in the growth and development of plants. Without healthy bushes it will not work strong and fructating plants. How to prevent errors and get healthy plants and a wonderful harvest? You just need to comply with the necessary conditions:
- Preparation of soil. It is impossible to plant seeds in the soil scored, where it fell. It is better to use the turdery soil scored on the site, but not in the greenhouse. It is necessary that the land stands in the bags of winter, this will allow you to get rid of weeds and pests.
- In January, you can put the ground into the room, sift it through a large sieve by choosing all the garbage. The soil should be light and clean. Then you need to pour the earth and remove again to the frost. A few days later, bring the land into the room and let her hurt.
- Soil preparation. You need to mix the soil, peat and humus with a proportion of 1: 1: 1. Then pour the composition, add some sand, superphosphate and ash. If purchased soil is used for landing, it is not necessary to fertilize it.
- It is necessary to disinfect the seedlings. Boxes must be more than 7 centimeters in height.
- Fill the tank with the soil, pour the soil and leave for 10 days.
- Preparing seeds. Before planting seeds, you need to hold 20 minutes in a special solution that stimulates their growth.
- In the wet soil you need to make a groove depth of no more than 1.5 centimeters and decompose the seeds in them on a small distance from each other. We sprinkle them a little earth and cover the film.
- We place containers with seedlings in a warm place where the air temperature is at least 22 degrees plus.
- After the appearance of germs, it is necessary to slightly reduce the temperature of the ambient air, but it should be no less than +18 degrees.
- It must be remembered that the plants should breathe, so first the film must be removed for a while, and then remove it at all.
- Water seedlings need warm water under the very root.
Picking and hardening seedlings
Only those plants that are grown by groups in the container are needed to dive. If tomatoes grow in large pots, they do not need to dissemble them. Picking is needed so that the tomatoes and their roots can develop.
Pication is carried out approximately 2 weeks after the appearance of germs when the young plant appears 2 leaves. On the day of diving, it is not necessary to water the plants, the earth should be light, but a little wet from the previous watering.
A small wooden stick need to spread the plant, then get it together with the soil and put in a separate container.
Starting from April, plants can be hardening. You can first open the window in the room for a few minutes. Then the time of ventilation gradually increases. When the air temperature is +12 degrees, containers with plants can be taken out. When performing these uncomplicated procedures, the plant will get used to natural natural conditions.
Landing in a greenhouse
The cultivation of tomatoes in the greenhouse begins in May month when the temperature of the soil inside will reach 15 degrees plus. It is possible to warm the land with the help of a film that needs to cover the Earth.
It is not necessary to plant seedlings not in chaotic order, but according to a special scheme that depends on the variety of tomato:
- The lowest varieties that are perfectly branched, planting in a chess in two rows at a distance of no less than half a meter from each other.
- The lowest varieties that do not have one stem are ground. The distance between the bushes should be no more than 25 cm, and the distance between the rows should be an approximately halfter.
- Tall varieties are improving in a chess order, but the distance between the bushes should be at least six meters, and the distance between the rows is about 75 cm.
Each bush gets out of the tank along with the soil and gently placed in a pre-prepared hole in a slightly larger than the height of the pot. A hole should be carefully polit.
It is not necessary deeply to plant tomatoes, the exception is only overgrown seedlings. For such plants, there are pits with a depth of 10 centimeters more than usual. At the same time, the well with a plant is not completely falling asleep, but only by the soils with roots. 10 days later, when the plant rushes in a greenhouse, its stems fall asleep by the soil of about 10 cm.
Tomatoes transplant in a greenhouse in the evening or in cloudy weather .
How to care for tomatoes - to get a wonderful yield of tomatoes in the fall, it is important for them to carefully care for them. Grow tomatoes in the greenhouse for beginners is quite simple.
The first watery after landing is performed about the fifth day, and it is best to pour plants 10 days later. Water seedlings with warm water under the root. Watering need in the morning every 5 days at the rate of half a bucket on 1m². When tomatoes begin to bloom, watering should be enlarged twice. If you pour plants, then the fruits will be watery, they will crack and sour.
Feed the tomatoes 4 times per season . Initially, the feeder spend 2 weeks after disembarking. Fertilize most often with aqueous solution of nitroposki and manure, which are prepared in proportion 1 large spoon of fertilizer or half aologram of a cowboat on the water bucket. Fertilizers at the rate of the liter on the bush under the most root.
After 2 weeks, tomatoes feed once again, but potassium sulphate or fertilizer dissolved in water is already introduced. After 10 days, fertilizer is brought again. This time, a solution of superphosphate and ash at the rate of 7 liters per 1 m² is used.
When tomatoes begin to be fruit, they are fed by a sodium humate and superphosphate at the rate of half a bucket on 1m².
It is very important to ventilate the greenhouse and maintain the optimal temperature in it. 2 hours after watering, it is necessary to ventilate the greenhouse. In hot weather, the doors and windows of greenhouses should be open. The best temperature for plants is +26 degrees during the day and +15 degrees at night.
Tomatoes need to be tested five days after disembarking in a greenhouse. It must be done so that the plants do not break under their weight and freight of fruits. You can perform a garter to the pockets inserted into the soil with a strip of fabric or rope.
Since insects to pollinate plants in the greenhouse, you can not wait, you need to pollinate tomatoes yourself. To do this, on a sunny day, just walk between the rows and gently shake the bushes with flowers. Then sprinkle the plants and splash on the flowers.
Due to taste and the benefits of tomato fruits, summer residents grow regularly. Bushes Plants grow up during the vegetative period, in the middle of the summer, the tall grades reach a height of 3 meters. For this reason, it is not always possible to put the culture in the closed room. Special varieties are derived for greenhouse cultivation. On how to carry out the care of tomatoes in the greenhouse from landing to the harvest, I will tell you more.
Selection of tomatoes for greenhouse
Before you call the best varieties of tomatoes for the greenhouses, who have taken root and gave a ridiculous harvest in the summer, it is worth considering a number of criterion.
Before buying seed, it is important to consider:
- The duration of the growing season of the variety, the early species are more often growing;
- Tomato Purpose: Soldering or Fresh Use;
- shadowness, resistance to temperature change;
- What method is pollinated;
- Are there any resistance to pests, fungal and viral diseases.
The selected variety must comply with the greenhouse requirements. It is important to take into account the producer recommended by the region of cultivation.
The table will bring the rating of greenhouse tomatoes, which give a good harvest for the reviews of most gardeners.
|Intemimensional||Octopus; De Barao Tsarsky; Yellow heart; Auria; Major, cream-Bruel.|
|Determinant||Pink honey; Doll Masha; Dasha doll; Bourgeois; Grandma's granddaughter.|
|Large-door||Japanese crab; Altai honey; Lemon hygant; Bull heart.|
|Shorty||Explosion; Tanya; Doll; Gina; Alsa; Bonus.|
|Late||Abakan pink; Andreevsky surprise; Banana; Cheerful neighbor.|
|Early||Batyang; Money bag; Alaska; Flash; Pearl red.|
|High-yielding||Babushkino; Miracle of Earth; Nobleman; Kostroma; Bohemia.|
By purchasing seeds, it is important to pay attention to the shelf life of the planting material. The packaging indicates the barcode, the cultivation technology, the address of the manufacturer.
Proper cultivation of seedlings
A seaside method allows you to grow a greater amount of crop. To get healthy seedlings, it is recommended to adhere to some rules.
- Prepare planting material . First of all, the seeds before sowing disinfect. For this, a solution of manganese. Some manufacturers protect tiramine seeds against fungal and bacterial infections. In this case, soaking in solutions is not required.
- Germination . To make sure the sowing material, seeds for 3-5 days are placed in a wet environment. Verified method is self-tutor. To make it, it will take a plastic bag 10-15 cm wide and a length of 25 cm. On top of the package, a napkin or toilet paper is stacked. To sprinkle paper to light moisturizing, seeds are laid on top in length. Then the package together with the paper is twisted into the snail. Self-grub to put into the glass, pour 3-4 cm of water. Top to cover with a cloth or another package to create a greenhouse effect. Remove into a warm place.
- Selection of soil . When the seeds were frightened, they are planting them into the ground. It is advisable to use the soil from that garden, where tomatoes will grow in the future. If there is no such possibility, the soil of universal destination from the store is suitable. If sowing is planned in plastic or peat cups, the land is first moisturized, then fall asleep into the container. The soil is slightly falling within 1 hour. In a small deepening, seeds are lowered and the earth is satisted. Pay attention that in plastic glasses, openings are needed at the bottom to flow excess moisture. Then the container is covered with a film or cloth and remove into a warm place until shoots appear. If the ground dries fast, then the land is irrigated from the sprayer or pour into the pallet.
- Picking . As shoots grow up, the sprouts are seated if the crops were in one container. At first, seedlings will appear 2 seedlings, and these are real, from which the fruits will be reached. As soon as 2 real sheets rose, the seedlings are picked by a piece. For this, the sprout is dug and move into a separate pot. After disembarking after 7-10 days, the plants will go into growth, the roots will take place and new leaves will begin to appear.
Care for seedlings at home is a few more weeks, until the plants are fixed. During this time, the green mass is growing, a dense stem and 8 of these leaves will appear.
If the seedlings began to stretch, then the plant lacks light. The duration of the day for the culture is 10-12 hours.
Optimal dates for landing seedlings in greenhouse
The deadline is largely determined by the cultivation region. I will give the table recommended time for planting tomatoes to the greenhouse.
|Central (Region: Moscow, Tula, Bryansk and others)||II decade of May|
|Northwestern (Region: Novgorod, Kaliningrad, Tverskaya, etc.)||II decade of May|
|North Caucasian (Stavropol Territory, Chechen Republic, etc.)||III decade of March|
|North (Region: Murmansk, Arkhangelsk and others)||III decade of May|
|Central-chernozem (Region: Voronezh, Lipetsk, Orlovskaya, etc.)||II decade of May|
|Volga (Region: Nizhny Novgorod, Perm, etc.)||I decade May.|
|South (Region: Astrakhan, Rostov, etc.)||III decade of March|
|Far Eastern (Areas: Amur, Magadan, etc.)||III decade of May|
|Ural (regions: Chelyabinsk, Magadan and others)||II decade of May|
Terms are suitable for polycarbonate unheated greenhouses, where the average temperature is + 25 ° C. If there is heating indoors, the planning time is shifted for a couple of weeks earlier.
Preparation of seedlings for landing in the ground
Once on the street, the temperature of the air warmed up to stable positive values, the seedlings move to a permanent place of growth. But before this, the plant prepare for new conditions.
Seedlings are hardened for 2 weeks. 2-2.5 weeks before the transplanting bushes are placed on a balcony or loggia, where the temperature holds within + 20 ° W on the day and + 14 ° C at night. A decrease in temperature should be gradual. First, for 2 hours, then 4, bringing to the whole day.
If the seedlings have a thin stem or poorly developed green leaf mass, the plants feed. Shooting seedlings are carried out in 2 stages. First 10-12 days after the dive, then 15 days after the first feeding. As a fertilizer, a liquid solution for tomatoes is used, a universal mixture for vegetables, herbal infusion. The dosage is indicated by the manufacturer on the packaging. It is important to take into account that if the soil is nutritious and plants develop well, it is not necessary to feed the bushes. The bust of the mineral elements provokes diseases and slows down the growth of culture.
Preparation of greenhouse
Preparing the soil in the plant for plants begin 2-3 weeks before the transplant. In the central region, the agrotechnical culture starts from the end of March.
How to prepare the soil
Culture is good and grows on black-earth soils with neutral and weak acidity. The preferred pH level = 6. Reduce acidity will help the ash or the dolomite flour in the calculation of 1 kg per sq.m. If the plot is predominant, sandy, clay or sublinous land prevails, then the soil needs to be improved.
Please note: you cannot enter fresh manure to the greenhouse. Fresh peat contains a lot of acids and live bacteria that lure plants on the root.
Stages of preparation:
- Disinfection of soil . The most affordable means is potassium permanganate. Dilute the crystals of the drug to light pink color, shedding the site.
- 1-2 days later Make organic fertilizer If necessary. Suitable huming or compost in the amount of 4-5 kg per 1 sq.m.
- Scatter in area Dry fertilizer With elements of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus. All overheat.
If there is no time to take advantage of the presented preparation scheme, then the organic and mineral feeding are made in the well before the transplant.
For cultivation of culture in a closed room, the material from which the greenhouse is made are taken into account. If the frame is made of polycarbonate, it is treated with antibacterial agents to reduce the risk of fungal diseases. More often disinfection is carried out in the fall, when the harvest is removed. But spring processing is allowed for 3-4 weeks before plant planting.
Tomatoes are thermal-loving plants. In the closed room it is important to monitor air parameters. High humidity of the plant is heavier, optimally maintaining 70-75%. The growth of the roots and the green mass is maximal, when the temperature indicators are kept at + 20 + 24 ° C during daytime and + 17 ° C in the night.
Flowerines stop in development in two cases: if the thermometer indicators dropped below + 12 ° C or higher + 30 ° C. The culture is able to withstand short-term cooling to + 8 + 10 ° C, but the fruits mature a little later, which will affect the taste.
Landing seedlings in a greenhouse in steps
Growing tomatoes in the greenhouse, it is necessary to take into account the size of the room and the height of the bushes. If greenhouse is up to 1 meter high, then low-grade varieties are suitable for it, which are distributed in 1 or 2 rows. The distance between the lowered bushes is 30 cm between the bushes and 40 cm between the rows.
When the width of the room is from 2.5 to 3.5 m, then planting will be 2 ways.
- In 2 rows on the right and 2 rows on the left. Central passage 60-70 cm. Distance between bushes 25-30 cm.
- In 3 rows: one row on the right, the second central, the third left. There are 2 rooms in the room for convenient movement and leaving plants.
If the greenhouse is in width more than 3.5 meters, then rationally place the landing in 3 rows: one row on the right, second on the left and two in the center.
Properly put tall and average grades closer to the aisle. Shorty walls. It is impossible to plant close to each other so that the bushes do not shadow each other.
A couple of hours before the transplantation, the seedlings are watered with a standing warm water.
- place holes;
- dig a hole to a depth of 15-20 cm;
- pour about 1.5 liters of water into each well; If desired, add growth stimulant into water;
- pull out the plant from the temporary capacity along with the land of the earth, trying not to damage the roots;
- Planting tomatoes in a wet hole, sprinkling the earth from all sides, slightly press the bush to the ground.
For 10 days, landed tomatoes can not be poured, which contributes to rooting plants.
Growing and care after landing
The advantages of the culture is that the care for tomatoes is minimal. Plants with optimal conditions quickly go into growth. I will talk about the most necessary conditions for growing after the transplantation of tomatoes to the greenhouse.
When growing in greenhouse conditions, ventilation plants are necessary. Fresh air helps not only adjust the humidity of air and soil, but also the temperature.
A number of nuances when conducting:
- open the room is allowed 30-40 minutes after watering;
- Soil moisture should not fall below 60%, but also not to rise above 75% so as not to start the roots;
- When growing tomatoes in a greenhouse from polycarbonate in hot weather, open the window for air exchange; Plants prefer warm drafts;
- In wet cool weather, greenhouse should not be opened at all to reduce the damage to fungi.
To observe the specified parameters, a thermometer and a hygrometer on the height of flowering plants are located on the far wall.
In compact film greenhouses, the shelter lifts or remove completely if the weather allows.
Mulching and watering
Mulching retains heat and moisture in the root zone of the bush. You can climb tomatoes immediately after transplantation.
Natural materials are suitable:
- straw / hay;
- fir branches;
- beveled grass;
- Wood sawdust;
- Ground dry peat.
Organic mulch allows you to breathe roots, moreover, when decomposition becomes an additional fertilizer. The shelter is lined up at a height of 4-6 cm. Consider that natural materials are quickly settled, so they are periodically put.
The synthetic muluine includes non-woven materials, black and red polyethylene films, rubberoid. The shelters presented reduce the growth of weeds and hold the heat of the earth, even with returnable freezers.
Tomatoes love watering. But there are rules that should be adhered to keep the plant healthy:
- Before the fruiting bushes watered moderately In order to prevent dampness, but the rehensited soil adversely affects the development of the plant. On average, watering is carried out 2-3 times a week.
- Water should not be cold . It is optimally used to use the indicators of which 10-15 ° C lower than the air temperature.
- Watering and feeding are prohibited during the daytime . In the hot clock, watering plants provoke burns roots. Suitable time - evening.
- Water splashes should not fall on the plant . Watering is done under the root. On average, 1 bus requires 5-7 liters. So that the moisture does not fall into the trunk, the coil deepening is done in a circle and water is supplied to it.
When the culture lacks moisture, it becomes noticeable in the leaves. They are twisted with a boat inside, yellow. When overflow, the leaves are twisted, getting rid of excess moisture.
Palencing and subordinate
In an effort to increase yields, dacms feed the culture with all sorts of fake. Tomatoes need fertilizers only if the soil is poor on nutritional elements. In the period of fruit tying, a plant takes a lot of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium from the ground. But preference should be given to organic fertilizers. They do not contain hazardous substances and quickly absorbed by the plant.
Natural feeding for tomatoes:
- mullein : 1 l lux contributes to 1 bus;
- Chicken litter : entered at the beginning of harvest;
- Wood ash: Extra-corner feeding is made 2-3 times per season for stimulating the growth of stalks.
If there is no possibility to make the organic, there are purchased complex additives: superphosphate, ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride and others. Dates and dosage of the introduction is indicated by each manufacturer on the packaging of the drug.
Stesying is required not to all varieties of tomatoes. As a rule, low-spirited tomatoes are less likely to have pinching and step-in. Removing side shoots growing out of the sinuses, enhances the growth of the main stems on which the fruits are developing.
In greenhouse conditions, the bushes are formed in 1 or 2 stems. In the open ground is allowed in 3 stems. Removing unnecessary processes is performed 1 time per week, early in the morning or evening. The length of the stepsing should reach 5 cm to remove them without damage to the bush. When the removal is left, 1-2 cm long paste is left so that a new process is not formed in the sinus. Fresh wreck is desirable to sprinkle ashes. On one plant is allowed to remove no more than 3 shoots.
Formation of bush and border
The formation and tissue is necessary that the plants in the greenhouse do not shadow each other, and the air circulated between the bushes. Polypropylene or linen fibers are used as a garter. The rope is firmly stretched along the top of the top of the greenhouse. The stalk of the plant in a circle is wrapped with twine and attached to the upper crossbar. A node at the top of the greenhouse is made in 2-3 tightening so that the growing bush under the weight of the branches did not excrete the garter.
The formation of a culture is regularly passing. Removing side processes, stalks do not grow into breadth. If the bush is formed in 2 stems, it is also necessary to be taped. It is important to remember that the more the main stems, the more attention is paid to culture. The population of landing does not contribute to a rich crop.
Improving gas exchange
Experienced gardeners are recommended to increase gas exchange when caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse. So that the plants are saturated with carbon dioxide, it can be increased by its own.
Methods for improving gas exchange:
- Vodka will help to raise the CO2 level . It contains ethyl alcohol, which, when compiling oxygen, forms carbon dioxide and water. In chemistry, the process is called the combustion reaction. 250 ml of vodka dilute in a bucket of water. The liquid is sprayed in the greenhouse 1 time in 1.5-2 weeks in the morning.
- Loosening . Regular loosenings also improve gas exchange in a closed room. But it is important not to damage the roots of the plant.
- Mulching . Separed mulch carbon dioxide with decomposition improves plant status.
- Cylinders with carbon dioxide . It is used in industrial greenhouses.
- Stray fertilizers . In the corner of the greenhouses set a barrel or a bucket with water with decaying herbaceous plants. Unfortunately, the method slightly increases gas exchange in the greenhouse, so it does not use popularity.
The lack of carbon dioxide appears when the plants are intensively absorb solar light. Weeds also feed CO2, so they are destroyed in a timely manner.
Protection against diseases and pests
Heat and moisture love not only vegetable crops, but also pests. Tomato bushes are affected by the following insects:
- web tick;
Pests inhibit the growth of culture, leaving behind a number of diseases. Specifies the signs of the appearance of unwanted livelihood a painful type of sheet apparatus. The diseases eradicated immediately, so as not to lose the crop completely. People's methods of struggle include solutions based on soda, iodine, garlic. The best ways to combat phytoophylo on tomatoes are described on our website.
Chemical preparations include: "Lightning", "Spark" and others. But chemicals are for a long time away from the soil, which negatively affects fruits and future landings.
Prevention of pests is timely crop rotation, loosening, weeding, seed disinfection, regulation of climatic indoor climate performance. Prevent diseases are easier than to learn culture.
Growing tomatoes in the greenhouse in winter
In winter, the greenhouse is equipped with heating and lighting. To the selection, the variety is carefully so that the fruits have to mature. Suitable sick-resistant species with good fierce. Growing in the winter greenhouse is made by a seaside way. Under the winter in the greenhouse, the floor also insulate. Saplings are transplanted when their height reaches 20 cm. The air temperature is maintained at + 23 ° C, soil indicators + 19 ° C. Pollination When growing tomatoes in the greenhouse in winter is done by hand, feeding and loosening also mandatory conditions for obtaining a crop.
Planting tomatoes in the greenhouse is not so difficult, as it seems at first glance. Invested labor compensates for a generous harvest, even in winter it is possible to obtain juicy fruits.
The most difficult task for most gardens is the cultivation of tomatoes in the greenhouse. Culture This is demanding on environmental conditions and does not forgive mistakes, and therefore many owners face problems.
There is no single array of rules for the cultivation of tomatoes, successful farmers themselves choose the methods for themselves, taking into account the wishes, climate and existing opportunities. Therefore, the article will provide only general recommendations that will help grow tomatoes in the closed soil.
It is impossible to name some varieties that will be the best for growing in the greenhouse: each person has its own requirements. One tomato of the Primaudonna variety seems great, others criticize them for lack of fetus. Someone grows the grade of a bullish heart, but it is difficult to realize it and the entrepreneur will not communicate with him. Therefore, the choice of a particular variety remains behind the garden.
It is desirable that the grade has the following qualities:
- High resistance to disease. In the greenhouse, it is not always possible to control the level of humidity, and if he is high - the phytoofer does not make himself wait and destroy most of the crop.
- Resistance to high temperatures. Even in the unheated greenhouse, the temperature in the summer can rise to 40 ° C, and many varieties of tomatoes lose the ability to form the wound up after 30-35 ° C.
- Resistance to light shortage. Popular greenhouses from polycarbonate are absorbed by 13% ultraviolet, glass - 7%. For tomato, these losses are sensitive.
Well, if the selected variety will be zoned for the cultivation region and is designed for closed soil. This information can be found on the package.
To find out for yourself which tomato varieties are better to plant in a greenhouse, you need to take 10-15 species, grow them and compare real indicators at the end of the season.
Three important conditions for growing
Even within one site, the conditions on the beds and in the greenhouse will differ radically, which is reflected in the agrotechnology. Takes and conditions operating in the open soil will be useless when growing a tomato in a protected ground.
Natural lighting level
Tomato came to Russia from regions where there is a lot of sunlight, and therefore even the shadowless varieties can feel bad in the greenhouses. This is manifested by the following problems:
- flowering delay;
- decline in the number of barriers;
- Later ripening.
To avoid this, building a greenhouse is needed on a lit place. The designs of polycarbonate and glass should be placed regularly both from the inside and outside. In case of early cultivation, take care of the shower.
Temperature fluctuations, as well as a violation of the temperature regime, lead to different problems: from raging flower buds to the death of tomatoes from starvation even in conditions of fertile soil. Therefore, it is important to monitor the temperature at all stages, from sowing seeds to harvest.
Temperature regime is distributed as follows:
- Before the appearance of germs - 20-25 ° C. Seeds are able to germinate at 15-18 ° C, but then this process will be slower and not friendly.
- The first 3 days after the appearance of germs - up to 10 ° C. Such a temperature stimulates the rapid development of the root system.
- For young seedlings and adult tomatoes, the best temperature is in the range of 20-25 ° and 12-14 ° at night.
The air temperature is below 10 ° C during the formation of buds leads to mass relief, and the pollen does not ripen. On the contrary, an increase in temperature of more than 35 ° C can provoke the death of plants.
Tomatoes are not afraid of drafts, and therefore greenhouses can and need to be carried out, thus adjusting the temperature regime. The main thing is to do it no later than 8 in the morning, otherwise the plants will experience stress.
For tomatoes before the start of fruiting, humidity should be 60-70%, and for ripening tomato, this value should be within 75-85%. The problem of growing in the greenhouses is that there is often increased humidity, and this leads to diseases.
In addition to airing, it is possible to reduce the humidity by changing the time of watering: it is carried out in the morning, then per day the excess moisture evaporates. It needs control over the state of the soil: the upper layer must be wet. During the period of fruiting the flow of water increases.
Uneven watering leads to cracking of fruits!
Seedlings for greenhouse
Tomatoes have a long growing season, and therefore in Russian conditions it is better to grow with a seaside method. Subject to the further landing in the closed ground, you can get a crop a month earlier, and this is a solid difference.
Preparation of seeds to sowing
If the seeds have not been prepared before selling (it is noticeable for unusual colors of the sowing material) - you need to work a little. A standard list of events, as in growing seedlings for open soil, but there is a small trick: you can accelerate germination by bubbling.
At home, it can be done according to the following scheme:
- Prepare a solution: 500 ml of water 5% biohumus and 0.5% molasses.
- Tomato seeds are placed in a gauze bag and immerse in solution.
- Using aquarium compressor, feed the air in the liquid during the day.
Such treatment destroys the pathogenic bacteria on the surface of the seeds and launches the processes of germination. As a result, there will be more friendly shoots, and the plants will become less ill.
Nuances of growing seedlings
Well, if there is a lot of seeds - then you can sow tomato thick, and after germination, remove unnecessary specimens: weak and excessively elongated. As a result, young, strong bushes, with a perspective of high yields remain.
You can peer tomatoes when one real leaves appears. Some gardeners place the plant is not in containers, but in the crosslodes of agrovolock, designed for 1 liters of soil. They are put in pallets so that water can be supplied by plants from below. This method allows you to maintain the desired level of humidity of the soil, and therefore the plants feel better.
Seedling may suffer from phosphorus deficiency. Visually it looks like this: the seedy leaves are directed up at an acute angle, and the real pressed to each other. The problem of feeding with drugs containing phosphorus is solved. The yellowing seedlings may indicate a chemical burn. It occurs when mineral fertilizers touch the roots.
It is important to make hardening - it increases the yield about a third. For this, a week before the landing in a greenhouse, the seedlings are put on the street. At first they are protected from the Sun, then the protection is cleaned. Under the influence of ultraviolet, chlorophyll begins to produce, because of which plants become strong, stem and leaves acquire a pleasant green color.
More details about the cultivation of tomato seedlings can be found in this article.
Methods of growing tomatoes
There are different methods of growing tomatoes - on hydroponics, directly in the soil, in bags. In the economies of the USSR, the cultivation of bales of straw and in ring culture was widely used. These methods deserve more detailed consideration.
Tomatoes on straw bales
Specially prepared extruded straw is a great place to grow tomatoes. It is constantly supported by the rooring temperature, humidity is held, the plants are less ill with rot. Of the minuses, it is possible to note the complexity of the process and the complexity in the search for material in some regions.
The soil is prepared in advance, mix the humus and turf land in equal proportions. The landing place is prepared as follows:
- The soil on the location of the beds is disinfected with a weak solution of manganese or fill the polyethylene film over the entire area.
- Place bales, you can close to each other.
- Spill them with hot water.
- Wake up with mineral fertilizers (at the rate of 100 kg of straw): 1 kg of potassium nitrate and superphosphate, 0.5 kg of potassium sulfate, 1.3 kg of urea.
- Pour the entire surface with hot water again.
- Clamp 1 kg of lime per 100 kg of straw.
- Opened again with water.
After a week and a half, the temperature inside the bale will be approximately 35-38 ° C. Now you can make a small deepening in the center, fall asleep it prepared in advance with a mixture, with a layer of about 10 cm. Grocery for the cultivation of tomatoes in the greenhouse is ready. It can be used in unheated greenhouses.
According to the authors of the equipment, the crop in such conditions it turns out a week earlier and more abundant.
Tomatoes in ring culture
The basis of this method is the use of vessels without the bottom. It can be both specially purchased containers and polyethylene or agrovolock packages. Their diameter and height should be about 30 cm.
Soils are prepared according to general principles, fall asleep in rings (packages or pots) and are slightly condensed so that the mixture is not poured. In the center make a deepening, where tomato seedlings at the age of 30 days are seeding. Rings are set close to each other on a layer of rubble, slag or large sand.
Pour tomatoes by supplying water to the lower part of the vessels, in the area of the litter. With such an agrotechnology, the lower roots provide a plant with water, the upper is larger with oxygen. With regular feeding, the plant develops perfectly, it is possible to receive large crops.
According to some data, in the cultivation of tomatoes in the greenhouse, the annular way is able to receive about 25 kg of fruits from a square meter of beds.
Tomato Care in Teplice
Depending on the method used, different planting schemes of tomatoes in greenhouse and different agrotechnical techniques are used. Thus, with a private method, tomatoes are planted at a distance of 35 cm apart, and the width of the rods are left 60 cm. If the greenhouse is equipped with racks, then they are seeding with compliance with chess order at a distance of 40x40 cm from each other.
It is important when transplanting seedlings to prevent excessive deepening to the ground, it will delay the period of fruiting.
Immediately after landing, the seedlings are watered with water heated to 25 ° C. Tall varieties are tied to a sleeper with a twine. One end of it is freely tied up around the stem below the first sheet. Further, the stem is wrapped with twine, the upper part is tied to the wire stretched under the roof.
Formation of bushes
When growing tomatoes in greenhouse conditions, it is important not to skip the time to start passing. The delay even in a few days will lead to the fact that the plant will form powerful side shoots that will take themselves most of the nutrients, to the detriment of the yield.
As soon as steps reaches 3-4 cm, they are removed. Hemp is impossible to leave. In the conditions of the south of Russia, the side shoots can be burned to the ground, pinch and pour out the land - after some time there will be another bush. In the middle lane and in the non-black earth area it is impossible: the stepper will take strength at the main plant, and they really need them.
Tomatoes in the greenhouse form in one stem, all other shoots are removed. The bush leaves 10 and more brushes, if the greenhouse is high and 6-7 brushes, if the construction is low. The top kidney is necessarily removed.
If the Tamatoes of low-speed varieties are grown in the greenhouse, then no more than four brushes leave.
Depending on the method of cultivation for the season, Tomatoam need 3-4 feeding, with which it is possible to significantly improve the growth of plants and fruiting.
You can prepare the following solution (on 10 liters of water):
- Superphosphate - 40 g;
- Potassium sulfate - 30 g;
- urea - 20 g;
- boric acid - 2 g;
- Copper Epiphany - 2 g
If necessary, instead of superphosphate, 20 g of ammophos can be added, only you will need to reduce the volume of urea to 10 g.
The number of fertilizers for the extra-root feeding of tomatoes can be viewed in the table.
|Name||Norm before flowering (g / 10 l)||Norm during fruiting (g / 10 l)|
Starting extractive feeders in 2 weeks after disembarking tomatoes at a permanent place. For the season you need 1-2 feeding, depending on the state of the plants.
It is important during the cultivation of tomatoes to control the state of the leaves in order to detect any substance deficit in time.
Creation of the desired microclimate
In addition to packing, making feeding, watering and loosening you need to try to create a suitable microclimate. Temperature and humidity are adjusted by ventilation. At the same time, it is impossible to plant plants close to each other, and when forming you need to remove extra leaves. So each tomato will get air and light in full. The ventilation pays increased attention during the period of mass formation of colors - air circulation improves pollination, it means the yield will be higher.
In hot weather, when the air temperature on the street rises above 30 ° C, it is necessary to protect plants from overheating and damage to ultraviolet rays. To do this, the upper part of the glass and polycarbonate greenhouses whiten, while opening all windows and windows. If possible, ordinary doors are changed to the lattice at this moment.
When cooling, you need to close the doors and limit the number of open vents.
Preventive measures of diseases
In the greenhouses, Tomatoes more often than in the open soil, they are ill because of non-compliance with the rules of agrotechnology. Some diseases are generally caused by a causative agent, but a deficit or excess of certain substances in the soil.
With the help of agrotechnical events, you can prevent many problems:
- Spottedness and duplerity of fruits are eliminated by the timely contribution of potassium according to the standards;
- cracking is warned by systematic and uniform irrigation;
- leaf twisting can be avoided if you form bushes on time;
- For the prevention of some forms of vertex rot, it is necessary to organize the right watering;
- To prevent the fusariosis and reducing the risk of developing phytoophulas, the organization of ventilation is important.
When growing plants in the greenhouses, it is necessary to remember that there is a favorable environment for the life of different bacteria and viruses, and therefore systematic disinfections are necessary.
After harvesting, all metallic and wooden elements of greenhouses are processed by special solutions, windows and polycarbonate are thoroughly washed out. Soil also undergoes a disinfection procedure.
Watch out the plants and remove the detected yellow leaves - they are a source of infection.
The cultivation of tomatoes in the greenhouse is not the simplest task. The novice gardener will have to study different methods, consult with more experienced colleagues, read special literature. But in this case, there is no protection from failures. Compliance with the standards listed in the article and the implementation of recommendations will help at the initial stage, but can not be the only leadership.
Tomatoes grown in the greenhouse give a better and abundant harvest than plants in the open soil. However, to obtain good fruits not enough to build a greenhouse. For tomatoes, you need to carefully care.
And only the observance of all agrotechnical measures (from the preparation of the soil to the collection of fruits) will provide an unprecedented harvest.
Preparation of beds
Plants need enough light, so the beds are best placed from the east to the west. Before planting seedlings, the soil must be switched to a depth of 35-40 cm.
It is important to prepare loose and nutritious soil. If necessary, you need to add peat, sawdust or cutting straw. These tearing materials should be 15-30% of the total soil.
If last season, the cucumbers grew in this place, when landing, organic fertilizers do not need. Otherwise, tomatoes will actively increase the green mass, and the fruit can not be happy at all.
Rechazzle seedlings of tomatoes in the greenhouse
Plants plant 12-15 cm deep, which are located in two rows at a distance of 70 cm. Before boarding each well poured 1,5-2 liters of hot rosane-pink solutions, and when the liquid is partially absorbed by forming Cashitz in the soil , Plant is placed there along with an earthen room and plunge to the first real leaflet. Then a slight loose land is plugged into the stalk, it is molded, mulched peat or humus.
For mid-grade tomatoes, the wells must be at a distance of 30-35 cm, and for tall - every 45-50 cm
After disembarking all the seedlings above the rows at an altitude of 2 m, the wire is stretched and each plant is tied with a twine. As the stalks are growing, screwed around the twine so that the turnover comes from 2 interstices.
Protection against frozen
Despite the fact that tomatoes grow in a protected ground, in the spring (and sometimes at the beginning of the summer) they may suffer from return freezers. To prevent this, when cooling it in a greenhouse, there are containers with hot water and shelted the seedlings with nonwoven material.
If the plants are injured, they are sprayed with any anti-stress preparation with a silicon content (for example, energy-M). For processing a greenhouse with an area of 60 sq. M. On 2 liters of water, it is necessary to use 1 tablet.
Tomato Care in Teplice
The optimal temperature for plants: 18-26 ° C - during the day and 15 ° C - at night. At the same time, keep in mind that a bright spring sun can be destructive, so the greenhouse glasses are recommended to bother. It will not allow plants a lot to warm up.
In hot weather, the greenhouse must be aircraft, it is also necessary to do after each watering, which must be accompanied by the soil loan. The first time the greenhouse tomatoes watered a week after the seedling landing, and then after all 3-7 days later (depending on the weather).
Tomatoes need regular and non-crowding
Tomatoes do not like high air humidity, the most suitable level is 45-65%. However, during the formation of fruits, tall plants watered abundantly (20 liters of water per sq.m). Then the humidity increases in the greenhouse, and the ventilation in this situation is not always effective.
In this case, tomatoes are better to water through plastic bottles with a cut bottom. They are installed near each plant the neck down.
Cealous tomatoes necessarily feed. Do it 2-3 weeks after disembarking and subsequently every 10-12 days. Tomatoes need phosphorus-potash fertilizers. Thus, on 1 sq. M. Maps will need 20-25 g of superphosphate and 15-20 g of potassium sulfate. And when tomatoes begin to be fruit, in the soil you need to make 2 tbsp. l. Superphosphate and 1 tbsp. l. Sodium humate, divorced in 10 liters of water.
To obtain an early crop, extraxornal feeders are good: in 10 liters of water, 16 g of urea, 10 g of superphosphate and 16 g of sulfur magnesium are separated.
Measking and formation of tomatoes
To get a good harvest of fully overwhelmed fruits, the bushes need to form in one stem. To do this, a week after disembarking, the bottoms are removed. Then every 10 days this procedure is repeated.
Steying - all shoots that grow out of the fasteners of the leaves.
You can form tomatoes in 2 or 3 stems. In this case, you will get more fruits, but not all of them will have time to mature. When growing in 2 stems, in addition to the main stem, leaving member, which is under the first floral brush. And when forming in 3 stems, it is left under the first floral brush and one more strongest.
Remove stepsics marked with a cross
Collecting tomatoes depends on what they will be used and after what time. The stage of maturity is determined by the color of the fetus: the earliest stage is green, the next - dairy, brown, pink and the latest - red.
Red tomatoes have a short shelf life, as they are the most ripe. They are assembled for immediate use: preparation of tomato paste, juice or consumption in fresh form. Such fruits are kept no more than 5 days.
If you are not sure that you can collect the fruits with red and at the same time not overwhelmed, it is better to remove them even pink. To taste, they will almost won't differ.
Brown tomatoes, which are stored for about a week are better suited for salting and marination. Fruits in the stage of initial ripeness and green fruits are assembled mainly for long-term storage - more than 10 days.
The last harvest of tomatoes falls on September. All the fruits who did not have time to mature by this time are removed and placed on dosing in the boxes or on the shelves, setting up in 2-3 layers of frozen up. The best conditions for tomatoes are created in a dry room with good ventilation and air temperature of 20-24 ° C. At the same time, it is possible to dispute the fruits as in the light (then they will get brighter color) and in the dark.
Plants and greenhouse spray with a solution of copper or iron mood (100 g per 10 liters of water). After that, plant residues are collected and sent to a compost bunch, and the greenhouse is thoroughly washed.
We hope these tips will help you grow healthy plants in greenhouse and collecting a lot of delicious tomatoes with them.
Tomato is deservedly considered extremely tasty and healthy vegetable, because in a large juicy tomato, full of unique vitamins and trace elements. At the same time, it is quite difficult to grow a really good harvest, not knowing some secrets and rules of agrotechnology. In addition, on the open space, tomatoes can easily suffer or die from the burning sun, strong shower, large degrees or annoying pests.
Therefore, greenhouse conditions are the most appropriate in order to grow a large number of really good and high-quality tomatoes. Next, consider the characteristic features of the planting and care of tomatoes in the greenhouses from polycarbonate - the process of growing from A to Ya.
The advantages of polycarbonate
Polycarbonate greenhouses are extremely widespread for growing vegetables for sale, and not just for its own use.
They are very strong and profitable from ordinary, owning a number of such benefits:
- Polycarbonate is easy to give any size and shape - it is elementary can cut and bend, without breaking and not cracked. This allows the site owner to build the construction of almost any form and size it.
- The key difference between polycarbonate from film material or glass is its good tolerability of temperature drops. Even with a sharp transition from the hello heat to the icy cold, the building will not promote and will not crack, which will save the harvest from extra stress.
- In addition, building a reliable building once, it can be used with due steady care for about 20 years. This suggests that polycarbonate structures are extremely durable, in contrast, for example, from film, whose service life is only 2-3 years.
Specificity of growing tomatoes in greenhouses
It is believed that the structure of polycarbonate will be optimally suitable for the cultivation of tomatoes.
This is because:
- It does not overheat due to the transparency of the material, so plants can not burn solar rays.
- Inside the perfect microclimate without temperature drops or the destructive effects of rain or hail.
- The appearance allows you to arrange it in any place in the territory of the country area, since the structure does not spoil the overall picture.
However, when growing this vegetable culture in a polycarbonate greenhouse, it is important to know that the most suitable varieties that are self-polls, since access is somewhat difficult for bees. In addition, it is necessary to regularly ventilate inside to provide fresh warm air access and avoid the appearance on the walls and ceiling of condensate, which can destructively affect plants.
In addition, the disadvantages of polycarbonate structures include the fact that with long-term exposure of the sun's rays, the material loses its color or transparency, it is extremely unstable to scratches, which may unexpectedly spoil the view of the greenhouse. It is also necessary to take into account that the polycarbonate has a characteristic property and expand when changing temperatures, so when building a building it is necessary to make a small supply to avoid the appearance of cracks during winter frosts.
It is important to take into account that plastic itself is very combustible material, so it is necessary to comply with strict safety equipment, especially if the construction is equipped with electrical heating. In the presence of modern irrigation systems, ventilation, climate control tomatoes will be quite expensive, but the highest quality. In this case, it is possible to increase the area of the room, since the crop will become more, and accordingly increases the income from it, and the cost will decrease.
Optimal varieties of tomatoes
For the best and most harvest, it is always worth paying special attention to the varieties of vegetables that are planned to be placed in an open soil or greenhouse. Differences in conditions of cultivation can have a different effect on different types of tomatoes. The best option for landing in a greenhouse will be plants with such properties: resistance to diseases, the ability to grow one stem, good tolerability of high humidity and self-pollution ability.
At the discretion of the host, both high and low varieties, which ripen at any time (from the earliest deadlines to the latest). When using different types of seedlings, not only the wealth of tastes can be achieved, but also to ensure their harvest throughout the season and even more, since in the greenhouse you can maintain optimal conditions for a longer time.
In any case, among the most common varieties of tomatoes, such leaders can be distinguished:
- Mikado Pink. It gives large (about 0.5 kg) fruits of pink color. The plant itself is characterized by good resistance to different diseases, can reach a height of about 2 meters and for the period of fruiting one bush gives more than 5 kg of fruits.
- "Raisin pink." Fruit is plentiful for a long time, differs in small fruits, which are famous for their taste characteristics.
- The two-meter bushes of the King of Kings can grow fruit weight up to 1000 g, extraordinarily juicy and saturated. Disease resistance makes this variety even more attractive.
- "Junior F1" will suit lovers of early varieties. The bushes of this variety rapidly grow up to their characteristic 0.5 m and begin to be froning with small (up to 100 g) oval tomorrow.
Features of growing seedlings for greenhouse
For the best quality of the grown tomatoes, it is better to plant for seedlings at the end of winter and early spring. Somewhere in 40-45 days, that is, by mid-April, small floral brushes appear on seedlings, which is a signal for an immediate disembarkation. In the case of untimely transplantation, the volume of the crop can significantly decrease, which can seriously affect the profits of vegetables traders in the case when people do this professionally and grow vegetables for sale.
If you have to postpone the movement of seedlings in the free soil, it is necessary to worry about that in general the seedlings do not grow in pots longer than 60 days, and for each plant would have accounted for no less than 1 liter of soil. This will make the most effectively save shoots and the future rich harvest.
It is also worth knowing that the key signs of good seedlings can be considered a bright or dark green saturated color, a thick barrel, the right shape of the leaves, a branched root system and formed large floral buds.
In order to grow the right seedlings, it is necessary to follow such advice:
- It is necessary to create a maximum similar to natural conditions, for example, a lot of light during the day and darkness at night. It is especially important to implement the seedlings in the first three weeks of life when its most rapid growth and development occurs.
- The optimal temperature regime will be so - about + 20-25 degrees during the day and 5-7 degrees less at night (best - + 16-18 ° C).
- Seedlings need to regularly water the room temperature. It is necessary to ensure that the moisture does not fall on the leaves or in the stem recesses, as this can lead to boot. Therefore, it is best to pour water into the earth itself.
- Air humidity both in the room and in the greenhouse should be kept at 60-70%. With smaller indicators, the plants may dry, and at large - rot.
Preparation of greenhouse and soil
If tomatoes have already planted earlier, then the preparation for the future season begins in autumn. First of all, it is necessary to clean up order - remove all the remnants of plantations and fruits, move with soapy water and disinfection all the designs indoors. If there are some cracks or broods in polycarbonate them must be eliminated.
In addition, in the fall, it is necessary to prepare the soil to the spring landing - most often the ground is watered with a solution of copper sulfate, sprinkle with fertilizers necessary for this soil, and then everything is drunk, breaking large lumps. So fertilizers will be able to really drink land during the winter period.
As feeding, most often use:
- river sand;
- Wood ash;
- egg shell;
- Potash salt.
Such a rich choice allows each girlfriend to find something to his taste and wallet.
In the spring, most often repeated almost the same algorithm of actions - 10-14 days before the disembarkation, all the soil is processed by a vaporam or a solution of mangartages and falls on fertilizers. Then the ridges are then formed in the loosening ground. In order to prevent the reproduction of pests and pathogenic bacteria, the soil is additionally processed by such drugs as "triphip", "phytoosporin" and others.
Technology disembarking seedlings
In general, the most important is the ambient temperature in which they will have to grow. At the same time, if inside the highway indicators do not fall below 15 ° C, then the seedlings can be planted at any time of the year. Thus, tomatoes will be able to be fruit almost year-round.
It should also be borne in mind that plants should be planted properly, for example, by observing the required distance between the instances. Here, the determinant of the variety is still played here, which is planned for landing. So, the determinants of tomato varieties are better not to plant in the northern cold regions, while the intenerminants can be represented in any region.
What is their difference? Determinants cease to grow after the ties on them with five brushes of vegetables. Therefore, they are planted most often on the principle of a chessboard, withstanding a distance of 70 cm between the bushes and 80 cm - between the rows. Intenerminant tomatoes grow constantly regardless of the number of groceries, which can be about 45-50 pieces with proper care. Such seedlings are burned with rows with a distance of 30 cm between bushes and 50 cm - between rows.
The scheme of planting varieties that quickly rush or low and low, and at the same time issue a few stems - chess order in two rows with a distance of 40 cm. On average, it turns out that in a square meter of the earth, we plant two bushes. It is important not to forget to leave a seat for the passages between the rows to facilitate further care.
Tomato care features in greenhouse conditions
Of course, it is necessary to care for the landings depending on the surrounding conditions, the selected variety, the state of seedlings. However, there are some general principles that should be remembered.
First of all, it is worth paying attention to irrigation. It is necessary to do this no more than once in five days, as the fruits can become tasteless, sour and too watery. Water for watering must necessarily be room temperature and it is necessary to pour it directly to the soil.
In addition, seedlings planted in an open ground is not poured at all about 7-10 days, so that the roots manage to adapt to new conditions and grow up enough to meet the needs of the growing plant. It is also important not to pour too much soil before transplanting seedlings, since the wet land becomes very difficult and can damage the small roots, which will worsen well-being and further growth.
Tall specimens reaching 1-2 m high need a mandatory garter. With the cultivation of tomatoes in the greenhouses, it is more often preferred by such varieties, as they occupy the same place as low-minded species, but they give a much greater harvest that, of course, much more profitable.
Garter technology also needs some clarifications:
- Tomatoes are printed regularly as they grow, so the support should be initially maximum height.
- Support must be ensured both stalk and branches, since they will grow fruits that can easily break thin twigs.
- Materials used for garter is undesirable to tie tight, since in the process of growth of tomatoes, they can damage some areas of plants.
In addition, you need to carefully choose, what to tie the branches. So, too thin and strong materials, such as a fishing line or wire, can easily cut the stems and branches or even completely cut off them due to the increased weight and earthly attraction.
- Special plastic loops;
- Fabric strips;
- Soft ropes.
It is the tissue garters that are very popular, because they can be easily made independently from old unnecessary clothing. In addition, it is possible to use both natural fabrics (season 1) and synthetic (can be wrapped and reused for several years in a row).
Time to trigger is selected individually depending on the degree of readiness of seedlings to this. For example, you first need to have time to make meating, and then tidy. However, it is precisely worth speeding up all the processes occurring if the first ovary appears, as they themselves are able to spoil, lying on the ground, and can still harm the bushes, breaking them.
As a support, simple wooden sticks can be used, different pipes - plastic or metal. In addition, from metal, you can make a special grid to which many bushes are tied at once. Such an approach is often practiced for greenhouse tomatoes, as there are many plants, and they die are extremely rare, so large frames can be the most optimal choice.
Formation of bushes
In addition to the above procedures, it is also necessary to carry out the formation of a bush, which is in trimming and steaming:
- The first is done in order to avoid the excessive growing of the bush and the formation of too much fruiting branches. The technology is extremely simple - you just need to pinch the top. Without this, tomatoes will grow very actively, but it is extremely poorly fruitful, since all the forces will go to the growth and maintenance of the viability of the stem, branches and leaves.
- Passing is the procedure for removing unnecessary shoots, which are called meat. Most often, such sprouts appear in the sinuses, but they can grow and right above the Earth - these are roasting steps. In any case, they need to be removed, since the perfect bush should consist of no more than three stems and eight flower brushes. In this case, you can get a really rich crop of outstanding quality tomatoes.
Pasking is carried out for the first time somewhere 2 weeks after disembarking seedlings to the greenhouse soil, and then the procedure is repeated approximately once every 10 days. It is also important to navigate not only for these deadlines, but also on the state of the passages themselves. It is best to remove them after reaching the length of 5 cm. Rolling (and not cutting) stepsok, it is worth leaving a small eight of 1.5-2 cm, this will ensure the absence of new sprouts in this place. The best time to remove steppes is an early morning, since at this time they are easiest to break.
In addition to the fertilizer of the soil, the feeding of already planted sprouts also use. The first time it is done after the appearance of the first leaves on the stems to help the plant continue to grow and develop.
Most often use:
- Monophosphate potassium;
- Calcium Selitra;
- Industrial "Aquarin".
It should be borne in mind that it is extremely undesirable to use nitrogen fertilizers that provide a rapid growth of greenery, but poorly affect the fruits that grow small, tasteless and in small quantities. The goal is to grow tomatoes, and not stems or leaves.
Pests and diseases
Tomatoes may suffer from different diseases and pest attacks. In this case, the danger can be buried both in the ground and transferred from neighboring crops. Very fast diseases apply with insects, so it is necessary to monitor their number in the greenhouse.
For many diseases of this culture, characteristic:
- White or black spots;
- Small splashes on the skin;
- Yellowing and withering the bush;
- Damage to the root system.
With timely discovery of the first symptoms, the plant can often be cured, as well as avoid the spread of the ailment to other stems.
Phytoofluorosis is the most common disease of the grained, since this fungus lives in the ground and can easily withstand even winter frosts. Advanced its reproduction increased humidity, frosts in spring or autumn, improper use of fertilizers (especially nitrogen). In addition to tomatoes, cucumbers and potatoes can also suffer, so it is necessary to carefully monitor vegetables and, if necessary, to treat them.
Among the signs of phytoofluorosis, you can allocate such:
- The appearance of white plaque from below on the leaves.
- Brown spots with fuzzy contours on stems and leaves.
- Gradual wilting, and then dieting stems.
After the very same signs of the disease, it is necessary to immediately take care of the treatment - sore sections to cut and burn, the remaining parts to be treated with a solution of "phytosporin" or "ecosila". The second drug also prevents the infection of healthy copies with fungus, so its use may be more appropriate. Also, to avoid the appearance of phytoofluorosis, you can spray bushes with an aqueous solution of a regular iodine that has a disinfecting effect. The main thing is to carry out gently and do not burn seedlings.
Also, a rather large plant that began to be froning may develop nebly necrosis. For him, brown spots are characteristic, which are then cracking, releasing juices. As a result, the bush loses its strength and dies. Necrosis is not treated, so all patients with seedlings are digging and destroyed.
Power bacteria are able to live in a ground or on seeds, can be transmitted through air or through infected tools. After 2 weeks, the incubation period of the disease ends and begins the rapid death of tomatoes. Therefore, after the destruction of patients with copies, it is very important to treat the remaining fungicide seedlings. For prevention in a couple of days after planting seedlings in a greenhouse, a solution of boric acid can be used. In addition, it is important to regularly ventilate the room and exercise the right one - not too frequent - watering.
Sepitoriosis damages all the plant, gradually moving from one part to another. It begins most often from the leaves, which appear rather large oval spots of brown color with velvet texture. As stains increase, the leaves die away, and the disease is moved to the stems and fruits. Infected specimens are no longer possible, so it is necessary to protect the surviving sprouts with the help of fungicides. This is a fungal infection that is quite often amazed. The situation with its distribution is often exacerbated by the high humidity of the air indoor and frequent irrigation.
Also, tomatoes can affect rot, both root and vertex:
- The first is called the "black leg", they cause her fungal disputes living in the ground or affected by other plants. You can first notice the stains of gray on the leaves that steadily grow and go to the stems and fruits. The root rot does not give in to the treatment, therefore the patients are digging and burned, and the ground is treated with fungicides.
- The vertex rot is usually provoked by errors in caring for seedlings when the irrigation is not enough. With a lack of moisture in the ground, the roots begin to take it from the stems and fruits, which leads to the formation of growing brown spots and die into their parts. Tomatoes can be cured, noticing the symptoms of the disease in time and normalizing watering. Also for prevention, you can use a spraying of copper sulfate or manganese solutions and adding proper feeding during flowering and fruiting.
Thus, adhering to a number of non-hard rules and recommendations of specialists, a rich harvest of delicious and useful tomatoes can be raised in a polycarbonate greenhouse. Already in early May, the first fruits can be collected and continue to enjoy the results of their works until the autumn.