Convulsions are called painful reductions in one muscle or their group, which arise spontaneously and cannot be completely controlled (it is impossible to stop independently). Such spasms are not only accompanied by unpleasant sensations, but also make it difficult to move the limbs. A convulsions should be perceived as a symptom of violations in the body, which may exhibit many diseases developing in a hidden form. Ignoring cramps in the legs and the lack of treatment leads to the exacerbation of pathological changes and the development of complications.
From what convulsions appear in the legs
Spontaneous extremist muscle spasms can be due to the characteristics of the lifestyle and human activity. Favorable conditions for involuntary abbreviations occur under hypodynamine conditions, excessive muscle activity (physical activity, exceeding the limit of capabilities) or wearing uncomfortable shoes. Spasms may occur as a result of metabolic disorders in muscles on the background of stress, hypothermia, staying in an inconvenient position.
The following reason can be associated with convulsions in the legs are metabolic disorders in the body. Muscle hypertonus can be due to a lack of vitamins and minerals (magnesium, calcium, potassium), exhaustion (for example, on the background of a rigid diet), dehydration, intoxication.
Most often, the reasons of convulsion may be a flaw / imbalance of MG2 + (Magnesium), but it is pointless to take blood test for the magnesium content, since its level supports the depot.
All states that are accompanied by convulsions in the legs, besides neurology, one way or another are associated with electrolyte violations.
Pain in the legs and convulsions accompany various states:
- neurological disorders;
- Hyperthermia against the background of infectious diseases;
- Endocrinopathy (diabetes, hypothyroidism);
- hypertonic disease;
- metabolic syndrome;
- heart failure;
- Vascular pathologies (venous insufficiency, varicose veins, thrombosis, obliterated endarteritic), etc.
Neither convulsions in the legs are subject to treatment, but caused their reasons. It is almost impossible to identify the provoking factor. If a person faces painful muscle cuts regularly, you need to consult a doctor and pass the survey.
What to do if convulsions are worried about constantly
If there is such a symptom, you need to contact the therapist. At the first consultation, a specialist conducts a survey, collects anamnesis, examines the patient and finds out the complaints. It is important to report the therapist about all prerequisites that precede the emergence of spasms (walking, stress, drug use). It is also necessary to describe the signs of seizures in the leg:
- How often appear;
- accompanied by static voltage or rhythmic abbreviations;
- how quickly pass;
- What a person takes to eliminate spasms.
Based on the information obtained during the consultation, the specialist makes a preliminary conclusion and assigns a screening survey that may include:
- blood test;
- Analysis of urine;
- tests for blood content of vitamins and minerals;
- Ultrasonic duplex scanning of foot vessels (VSDG vessels and arteries).
According to the research results, the doctor establishes a diagnosis. Treatment may prescribe the therapist or a narrow profile specialist (phlebologist, neurologist, cardiologist, endocrinologist).
How passes therapy
Than to treat cramps in the legs, the doctor defines after the diagnosis. The tactics of treatment of skeletal muscles spasms depends on the underlying disease. If convulsions are strong and often arise, the main therapy can be supplemented with symptomatic measures. Prescribed vitamin and mineral complexes, muscle relaxants, massage, leaf.
The most common cause of the occurrence of convulsion is recognized by diseases of the vessels of the legs, namely chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins. In these diseases, a comprehensive treatment is prescribed, which includes:
- drug therapy (venovonic drugs and means for the prevention of blood cloves);
- diet (balanced diet with moderate fat content and increased flow of vitamins from food);
- wearing compression knitwear;
- LFK to improve the work of the muscular venous pump;
- moderate physical activity;
- Rational mode of work and recreation with the aim of preventing insufficiency progression.
In severe cases (in the later stages), varicoses are resorted to surgical methods of treatment. In modern phlebology, preference is preferred by small-acting methods for eliminating blood flow in pathologically changed vessels (sclerotherapy, laser coagulation, etc.).
What to do if a savor
Often the muscles of the legs will be spoiled at night. Awakening from convulsion is extremely unpleasant, since spontaneous reduction is accompanied by pain. Man is able to help himself with very simple manipulations:
- Change body position. Despite the pain and restriction of movements, you need to get out of bed, better on the cold floor. It restores blood circulation in the muscle and contributes to its relaxation.
- Make a massage. To speed up blood flow in the muscle, you can use strong pinchs with your fingers. If it does not get caught, sufficiently rhythmic pressure on the painful area. A few minutes, spasm will pass.
- Stretch the muscle. Faster to get rid of convulsions helps stretching the spasmned muscle. If there are caviar, you need to pull the fingers of the foot on yourself.
With multiple spasms, it makes sense to make a small warm-up to restore blood circulation. You must first sit down and make movements in various directions. Then you can get up, climb the socks several times and dropping sharply on the heels. It is also recommended to alternately bend the legs in the knees, translating the stop on the sock. To better stretch the caviar, in parallel you can lower the body forward (in this position a person feels stretching under the knee of a smooth leg).
How to prevent the appearance of cramp
Episodic cramps associated with load or long walking may indicate violations in the body. However, a person is able to prevent health problems if pay attention to the following points:
- Shoes - Better to abandon the heels for a while, use orthopedic insoles, refuse too close boots;
- Water - a violation of the water and electrolyte balance is a prerequisite for the occurrence of cramps and develop diseases, it is necessary to use the daily fluid rate;
- The diet - it makes sense to enter the products of potassium sources, calcium and magnesium in the menu (these nutrients are contained in bananas, avocado, sesame seeds, dried fruits, nuts, leaf greenery);
- Harmful habits - it is worth abandoning the use of alcohol and smoking, as the main factors for the development of micronutrient deficits;
- Loads - It is desirable to introduce into the habit of daily gymnastics for stop and ICR, aimed at improving the outflow of venous blood, as well as abandon the super-violent strength training in favor of walking, swimming.
Prevention Foot seizures includes all activities that relate to a healthy lifestyle. Rational nutrition, no harmful habits, moderate activity and full rest contribute to the maintenance of health in general and prevent the development of many diseases.
If convulsions began to appear in the legs, write down to the "Medprosvet" consultation. Qualified doctors will establish the cause of this state and make a personalized treatment and rehabilitation program.
Last updated: 12.04.2021
According to statistics, 75-85% of the population of developed countries are periodically complaining of convulsive cuts of the leg muscles. It is mainly concerning people of mature and elderly, but recently the problem has grown up: night cramps are even in children. Of course, they can appear at any time of the day, but the latter extremities are most often found at night. This leads to a violation of sleep quality, as a result of which a person does not fall out and feels irritated, depressed or apathetic during the day.
In which cases, small twitching muscles are temporary inconvenience, practically not dangerous to health, and in what - may indicate the presence of serious diseases? What to do first if you have developed cramps in your feet at night? What doctor to contact and what surveys it is recommended to go to identify the cause of this pathology? Who enters the risk group and what to do for prevention? Answers to these questions are shown below.
Why drives the legs of a convulsion at night?
Foot cramps at night: Cause and Treatment
Tethania (spasm) is an involuntary, uncontrolled muscle contraction (one or several simultaneously), during which a person feels a sharp squeezing pain. Depending on the mechanism of occurrence, the fire cramps at night can be both long and short-term. Their characteristic feature is a sharp occurrence. Guess the approach of the attack of cramps is impossible: a person just wakes up from a sharp pain in the muscles of the legs.
The most common form of night cramps in the legs is the convulsive voltage of the icy muscles - the so-called Krampi syndrome.
Prerequisites for its occurrence may be the following:
Blood stagnation in the veins of the lower extremities. Varicose veins - a common problem that is facing up to 30% of the population of developed countries. Because of the improper operation of venous valves, blood flows, amplifying at night. With the help of convulsion, the body is trying to normalize the blood flow.
Lack of trace elements. Blood electrolytes (particles with a positive and negative charge) have the ability to carry out electric current charges, providing nutrient transportation and maintaining the optimal water-salt balance in the body. With magnesium deficiency, sodium, potassium and calcium in the body, this balance is broken.
Causes of seizures in the legs at night
Endocrine disorders. This group includes hypothyroidism (condition due to insufficient synthesis of thyroid hormones) and a second-type diabetes (a disease characterized by an elevated level of glucose in the blood). Both pathologies have negatively affect the development process of the necessary microelements (in particular - calcium), and also affect the state of the nerves of the lower extremities. As a result, a person takes her legs at night from convulsion.
Diseases of the kidneys. One of the basic functions of the kidneys is to maintain the chemical constancy of the inner environment of the body. If these organs do not cope with their task, the ratio of potassium and sodium changes, there is a disruption of the water-salt and osmotic balance of the body.
Wrong drinking mode, alcohol abuse, excessive affection for coffee. If the body is dehydrated as a result of insufficient drink (the norm is considered to be the use of at least 2 liters of water), diarrhea or vomiting, it strongly loses the electrolytes.
The systematic use of alcoholic beverages and strong black coffee also contribute to the poor absorption of magnesium and calcium.
The predominance of proteins in the diet. Low-carb diets besides a number of advantages have a significant drawback: they contribute to the increase in the burdens and removal of calcium from the body.
Sharp drop temperature. If in the room where the man sleeps, the temperature of the air is sharply changed (for example, a window opened), the leg muscles can convulsely shrink.
Causes of feet seizures at night: medication reception
Receive some medicines. First of all, it concerns diuretics: diuretic drugs "wash" the necessary microelements from the body, as a result, the muscle cramps appear at night. Treatment using some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has a side effect manifested in the form of muscle spasms.
Increased sweating. When a person sweats hardly, the output rate from the body of magnesium increases. Therefore, the nightly spasms of the calf muscles are a common problem during the summer heat, after intense training, at elevated body temperature (38 ° C and higher).
Wearing close shoes and clothes, tightly fitting legs. Night cramps feet in women are often explained by the fact that they spend all day at high heels and in tight jeans. Such clothes and shoes prevent normal blood circulation in the lower limbs, due to which spasms in the muscles of the legs.
Excessive physical exertion. The fact that the legs make a savoring at night complain both professional athletes and lovers. In most cases, an increased load is becoming the cause of such inconvenience aimed at the lower limbs.
To reduce the likelihood of seizures in the legs at night, before exercising sports (especially by its species that are directed to legs - running, jumping, cycling) It is necessary to make a stretch. Also, people are facing convulsions, forced to spend a long time standing: couriers, postmen, hairdressers.
Doctor Vascular Surgeon, Flabog
Osipova Ekaterina Yakovlevna
Emotional overvoltage. During stress, the synthesis of cortisol adrenal glands is enhanced. The high level of this hormone leads to failures in the processes of calcium absorption and the accelerated elimination of the microelement from the body by the kidneys, due to which the sighs of the hips and ICRs arise at night.
Cramps in the legs at night during pregnancy
Pregnant women often encounter this unpleasant phenomenon, especially in 2 and 3 trimesters. Its occurrence is due to the increasing need for trace elements, which should be enough not only for the future mother, but also the fetus. In addition, due to the increase in body weight and the growing load on the feet, the woman may face varicose veins, which is often the cause of night cramps.
Cramps in the legs at night during pregnancy
Why drives the feet of convulsion at night in men and women?
With age, the blood supply to the lower extremities deteriorates, due to which congestive phenomena and varicose veins may occur. Also reduced the digestibility of potassium, magnesium and calcium. One of the reasons for their shortage of the elderly is to need to take drugs that can adversely affect the body's ability to assimilate trace elements.
Why drives legs in older people at night?
Night cramps feet: what doctor to contact?
If you regularly encounter this problem, do not expect it to pass on your own. Remember that cramps in the caviar of the feet at night can be a sign of serious diseases, for the diagnosis of which you need to contact a specialist.
First of all, reflect on the reception to the therapist, which will conduct a manual and physical examination of the lower extremities, and will also write directions to laboratory research - general and biochemical blood test, analysis of trace elements. To form an accurate diagnosis, additional activities may be required. This is usually a visit to the phlebologist, an endocrinologist and a neuropathologist, carrying out the Doppleroscopy of the vessels of the lower extremities.
Doctor Vascular Surgeon, Flabog
Osipova Ekaterina Yakovlevna
How to treat cramps in the legs at night?
The actions of the doctor and the patient should be aimed at identifying the root causes of muscle seizures. For the treatment of diseases of internal organs (kidney, thyroid gland, etc.) appropriate drug therapy is prescribed, varicose veins are treated using systemic vetonic and angioprotectors, microelements deficiency replenishes the diet correction.
How to deal with cramps to feet at night?
Foot cramps at night: folk remedies
Recipes of traditional medicine, the action of which is aimed at combating foot seizures at night, quite often turn out to be ineffective. However, if you use them together with medication therapy, their effectiveness will be much higher.
Before starting treatment at home, do not forget to report this to your doctor.
You can make foot baths with food soda and ginger, chamomile colors, vegetables, consuming birch kidney chambers, lime color, goose laptops, rub the legs with mustard oil, lemon juice.
Feet drives a savoring at night: what to do in the first place?
If you woke up from sudden pain in the leg muscles, do not panic. To cope with an unpleasant feeling and overcome painful cramps, carefully disincarnate the muscle with your hands, easily pinch, move your legs with your fingers, attach something cold to it (for example, a wet towel).
How to avoid night cramps in the legs: Prevention
If you periodically arise night cramps in caviar of the legs, try to adhere to the following recommendations:
How to avoid night cramps in the legs: methods of prevention
Turn on the daily diet products rich in potassium, calcium and magnesium: milk, bananas, apricots, grapes, nuts, sesame, dried fruits (drong, raisins, prunes, figs), potatoes, spinach, garlic, legumes, turmeric, black tea, buckwheat Porridge, wheat bran, black chocolate, cheeses, sea fish.
Drink enough water (at least 2 liters per day).
For the prevention of seizures of feet at night, they are balanced, do not abuse protein diets.
Compelate with a doctor about the additional reception of mineral complexes.
Perform the sink exercise, especially for a stretching.
Do not eat diuretics without the appointment of a doctor.
If the cause of strong night cramps is to varicose veins, use preventive venotonic means. For example, pay attention to the normal foot cream. It includes such natural components as chestnut extract, green tea, ginkgo biloba, wormwood, arnica and lingers, menthol, lemon oil, panthenol, vitamins A, B and C. Their integrated effect on the vessels strengthens the veins, reduces swelling, feeling The cutting and severity of the venous pattern, speeds up the process of regeneration of damaged vessel walls.
For accurate diagnostics, contact a specialist.
- Belikov L.N. Diagnostics and surgical correction of the vertical reflux of blood with varicose disease: DISS. ... Cand. honey. science -Kursk, 1993.
- Dumpe E.P., Ukhov Yu.I., Schwaleva P.G. Physiology and pathology of the venous blood circulation of the lower extremities. -M.: Medicine, 1982.
- Disorders of water and electrolyte metabolism (pathophysiological aspects): studies. Manual / D. M of Falls, E. V. Melenchuk, F. I. Vismon. - Minsk: BGMU, 2011.
- Pathological physiology: studies. / Ed. N. N. Zhuko, Yu. V. Byz. 3rd ed. M.: Medpress-Inform, 2006.
- Marshall, V.J. Clinical Biochemistry / V.J. Marshall: Per. from English M.: Binin; Spb. : Nevsky Dialect, 2002. 348 p.
- Bunny, A. Sh. Patochemistry (endocrine-metabolic disorders): studies. For students honey. Universities / A. Sh. Boyaken, L. P. Churilov. 3rd ed. Spread. and. extra. Spb. : ELBI-SPB, 2007. 768 p.
- Bogolyubov, V. M. Pathogenesis and clinic of water-electrolyte disorders / V. M. Bogomolov. M.: Medicine, 1968. 428 p.
For accurate diagnostics, contact a specialist.
Episodic painful abbreviations of the leg muscles is experiencing every one. The causes of physical discomfort are different. Most of them can be eliminated by adjusting the lifestyle and diet. But if the legs holds regularly, you need to seek medical help. Sometimes there are serious vascular or systemic pathologies.
Why arise cramps in the legs
Abbreviations of muscle fibers, causing characteristic spasms of legs, always occur suddenly:
Muscles reduces sharp squeezing pain;
The legs are eager and become "stone";
After a few minutes, the attack weakens, the sensitivity is returned;
Clear can "cover" by series of several consecutive seizures. Sometimes the mixing of the muscles is mixed with convulsive twitching, lasting a few seconds. The calf muscles suffer more often. Less often, such painful symptoms arise in the feet and fingers or in the femoral part of the legs. Pains can only disturb at night or during the greatest muscle tension. You can drive one leg or both at once.
Direct causes of seizures: vessel spasms, causing violation of blood flow in the legs. The signals of the brain on the relaxation of muscle structures in such states do not reach the affected areas. The main provoking factors of spasms:
Hymitamin and mineral deficiency: groups B, ascorbic acid, potassium, calcium and magnesium. This adverse state leads not a full nutrition, impairment of the essential substances, their increased consumption in the body.
Heavy physical exertion. Especially harmful monotonous long movements, the same muscle groups. For example, excessive fascination with cycling, gardening.
Slow thermal impacts. Causes often overtake when leaving a warm home in frost, when immersing the heated body into cool water. The vessels react immediately narrowing, blood flow in the lower limbs is blocked. A sudden decrease in ambient temperature is more than 10C - a powerful provocation factor.
Strong stress. Emotional people susceptible to heavy experiences suffer the vegetative nervous system. The flexing and extension mechanism of active muscle groups is broken primarily.
VDC A complex symptock complex affects the activity of the foot vessels. The next attacks of disease are associated with the effects of cold, psycho-emotional stress or existing chronic disorders.
Dehydration. Disruption of the balance of electrolyte salts and water leads to failures in the mechanism of muscle innervation. Normally, the body should consume up to 2-2.5 liters of clean water per day. Abundant sweating, reinforced urination or habit of replacing water by other drinks cause active washing of potassium salts from the blood. And their deficit leads to cramps.
Diseases: CNS, musculoskeletal system, varicose veins, endocrine, and authar diabetes, alcohol. In the development of pathologies, convulsive syndrome is part of characteristic symptoms.
Acute or chronic intoxication: Some biological and chemical poisons affect the function of the nervous system, provoke dehydration and cramps of the legs.
The immaturity of the CNS in children's and adolescence. Neurons and vessels often do not have time for actively growing skeletal muscles, which is manifested by various negative signs of the development of the body, including shifting feet.
Pregnancy. In this case, spasms in this case provokes a deficit of minerals, an increase in the load of the growing stomach on the vessels and nerve endings.
Some people have foot cramps - professional disease. She suffers dancers, climbers, swimmers, heavy athletes, football players, sales assistants, hairdressers, drivers. Hydgodina, close uncomfortable shoes, long-term forced stay in one position - additional negative factors for the appearance of painful symptoms.
First aid to remove the attack
In the first seconds, it can cover panic, especially if the cramps did not arise before. It must be controlled. Spasms do not threaten life and eliminate enough enough.
Abbreviated muscles are important to relax. For this you need to move your feet: pull them out of bed on the floor, to brighten the feet.
To remove severe pain and restoration of blood flow, it is recommended to be confused and massage the legs with palms.
If the attack is very sharp, you can pour the place of damage to the pin, pinch the nails. This will cause the reflex conclusion of spashed muscles. The way helps to relieve the cramp when in the water, when every second is important.
If the spasm struck the feet, you need to walk along the floor with barefoot legs. Cooling will help restore nerve impulses. It is recommended to make several exercises: standing, rolling with socks on heels and back, take a few steps on the inner, then - the outside of the soles, click and break your fingers.
Houses for weakening pain is helpful to take a contrasting shower, watering the legs alternately warm and cool water. After the convulsions are released, it is useful to lie down a bit on the back, using a support for the legs above the head level.
How to prevent cramps
With regular spasms of the limbs without clinition, do not do. It is recommended to examine the cardiologist, neurologist, phlebologist. It will be necessary to make laboratory tests, eliminate problems with joints and carbohydrate exchanges. If necessary, you need to go through the appointed therapy.
With hypovitaminosis and suspicion of dehydration, drinking mode is required:
eliminate coffee, lemonade, tea and other diuretic drinks;
limit salt use;
Take the preparations of ascorbic acid, magnesium and potassium;
Include more fresh vegetables, solid cereals, fermented milk products, fish.
Reducing the frequency of appearance of convulsion helps hardening procedures, moderate physical exertion. With harmful conditions, it is recommended to wear special compression linen, master the complex of medical gymnastics.
Causes are the state of continuous reduction of the muscle that cannot be arbitrary relaxation. This condition causes a strong painful reaction, since at the moment the muscle convulsion is experiencing an acute lack of oxygen and nutrients. In addition, in a short period of time, it highlights a large amount of vital waste that annoy nervous endings, causing pain. According to statistics, convulsions happen at least once in the life of each person. The cause of excitement they become with frequent repetition. In some cases, convulsions are a symptom of such a disease as epilepsy. In other cases, convulsions are developing in healthy, at first glance, people. The most often convulsions are recorded in people involved in the following acquaintance:
- Public transport controllers;
- traders in the markets;
- employees of plumbing companies;
- Foot cramps are a signal that there is a certain pathology in the body, which caused their appearance.
- Cold environment increases the likelihood of seizures.
- Smokers, convulsions happen 5 times more often than those who do not smoke.
- Proper first aid for the savors of the lower extremities prevents their repetition in 95% of cases.
How do muscles work?
Knowledge of the structure and mechanism of muscular reduction is necessary to accurately understand the reasons for the development of feet cramps. Without this information, the path of the influence of numerous factors for the appearance of convulsions will not be fully disclosed and explained.
From the point of view of human physiology, the muscular fiber reduction mechanism is the long-studied phenomenon. Since the task of this article is to cover the issue of convulsion in the legs, it will reasonably pay special attention to the work of only transverse ( Skelette ) Muscles, without affecting the principles of smooth functioning. The skeletal muscle consists of thousands of fibers, and each individual fiber, in turn, contains many myofibrils. Miofibrilla in a simple light microscope is a strip in which dozens and hundreds of muscle cells are visited in a row ( Myocyte ). Each myocyte in the periphery has a special contractual apparatus, oriented strictly parallel to the axis of the cell. The contractile apparatus is a combination of special contractual structures called myophylllamations. These structures can only be detected using electron microscopy. The main morphofunctional unit of myofibrils with a contractile ability is a sarcomer. The Sarcomer consists of a number of proteins, the main of which are actin, myosin, troponin and tropomyosine. Aktin and Miosin in shape resemble the threads intertwined. With troponin, tropomyosis, calcium ions and ATP ( adenosine trifosphate ) Mutual rapprochement of the filaments of actin and myosein occurs, as a result of which the sarcomer is shortened, and all muscle fiber and, accordingly, all muscle fiber.
Muscular abbreviation mechanism
There are many monographs describing the mechanism of reducing muscle fibers in which each author presents its staging of this process. Therefore, the most correct solution will be allocated to the general stages of the formation of muscle contraction and describe this process from the moment the impulse is transferred to the brain until the muscle is completely reduced. The reduction of muscle fiber occurs in the following order:
- Nervous impulse occurs in a presencentral overhang of the brain and is transmitted along the nerve to the muscular fiber.
- Through the acetylcholine mediator, there is a transition of an electrical pulse from the nerve to the surface of the muscle fiber.
- The propagation of the pulse throughout the muscle fiber and penetrate it deep into the special T-shaped tubules.
- The excitation transition from T-shaped tubules to tanks. Tanks are called special cellular formations containing in a large number of calcium ions. As a result, calcium channels and calcium yield into intracellular space occurs.
- Calcium launches the process of mutual approach of actin and mosisin's threads by activating and restructuring the active centers of troponin and tropomyosis.
- ATP is an integral component of the above process, since it supports the process of approaching the filaments of actin and myozin. ATP contributes to the disconnection of myosin heads and the release of its active centers. In other words, without ATP muscle is not able to shrink, because it cannot relax.
- As the acts of actin and myosin are rapprocated, the shortening of the sarcomer and the reduction of the most muscle fiber and the whole muscle occurs.
Factors affecting the contractile ability of the muscles
A violation on any of the above stages can lead both the absence of muscle contraction and to the state of permanent reduction, that is, cramps. The following factors lead to a long-term tonic reduction in muscle fiber:
- redundantly frequent pulsation of the brain;
- excess acetylcholine in the synaptic slit;
- Reducing the immaturity threshold of myocyte;
- Reducing the concentration of ATP;
- Genetic defect of one of the contractile proteins.
Causes cramps in the legs
The reasons imply diseases or certain states of the body, which create favorable conditions for the occurrence of the seizures of the lower extremities. Diseases and various states that can lead to cramps, a huge set, so in this case should not be retracted from the selected direction, but, on the contrary, it is necessary to classify the diseases according to the factors listed above.
Outlessly frequent brain pulsation
The brain, namely, his special department is a cerebellum, responsible for maintaining a constant tone of each body muscle. Even during sleep, the muscles do not cease to receive pulses from the brain. The fact is that they are generated much less often than in a state of wakefulness. Under certain circumstances, the brain begins to participate the impulses that the patient is felt as a feeling of muscle stiffness. When a certain threshold is reached, the pulses become so frequent that they support the muscle in a constant reduction state. This condition is called tonic convulsions. Foot cramps due to the increase in pulsation of the brain develop under the following diseases:
- acute psychosis;
- Card and brain injury;
- intracranial hemorrhage;
- Card-brain thromboembolia.
Epilepsy Epilepsy is a severe disease characterized by the appearance of synchronous pulsation in the brain. Normally, various brain departments emit waves of different frequencies and amplitude. With epileptic seizure, all brain neurons begin to impulse synchronously. This leads to the fact that all body muscles begin to reduce and relax. There are generalized and partial seizures. Generalized attacks are considered classic and correspond to the name. In other words, they are manifested by a reduction in the muscles of the whole body. Partial convulsive seizures are less common and manifest themselves to an uncontrolled reduction in only one muscle group or one limb. There is a special type of convulsion called by the author who described them. Name of data seizures - Jackson seizures or Jackson epilepsy. The difference of this type of convulsions is that they begin as partial seizures, for example, with hands, legs, or face, and then spread to the whole body. Acute psychosis This mental illness is characterized by visual and auditory hallucinations caused by a variety of reasons. Pathophysiology of this disease is not sufficiently studied, but it is assumed that the substrate appearing the symptoms of distorted perception is the abnormal activity of the brain. With unwise of medication assistance, the patient's condition deteriorates sharply. Raise body temperature above 40 degrees is a bad prognostic feature. Often, generalized convulsions are accompanied by increasing temperature. The convulsions of only lower extremities are practically not found, but may be the beginning of a generalized attack, as mentioned above the Jackson seizure. In addition, the patient can complain that he drives his feet because of a distorted perception. It is important to consider this complaint with all seriousness and whether it corresponds to reality. In case the limb is in a state of convulsions, its muscles are tense. The violent extension of the limbs leads to the rapid disappearance of painful symptoms. In the event that there is no objective confirmation of the sewage of the lower limbs, the patient's complaints are explained by paresthesias ( Sensitive hallucinations ) caused by sharp psychosis. Eclampsia This pathological condition may occur during pregnancy and presents a serious threat to the life of pregnant and fetus. In non-empty women and men, this disease cannot happen, since the incompatibility of certain cell components of the mother and the fetus is a starting factor in its development. Eclampsia precedes preeclampsia, in which the pregnant blood pressure increases, swelling appears and the overall health deteriorates. With high blood pressure figures ( Average from 140 mm Hg. Post and above ) The risk of placenta detachment increases due to the narrowing of blood vessels that feed it. Eclampsia marks the emergence of generalized or partial convulsions. Foot cramps, as in the previous case, may be the beginning of a partial Jackson seizure. During convulsion, harsh abbreviations and relaxation of uterine muscles occur, leading to the detachment of the fruit and stopping the nutrition of the fetus. In this situation, there is an urgent need for emergency delivery by caesarean section to save the life of the fetus and termination of uterine bleeding in a pregnant woman. Brain-brain injury Card and brain injuries can lead to the appearance of feet cramps, but it should be recognized that it happens quite rarely. There is a pattern according to which the lesion value corresponds to the severity severity and the duration of their manifestation. In other words, the brain injury with subdural hematoma will more likely cause convulsions than the usual concussion of the brain. The mechanism for the occurrence of convulsion in this case is associated with the destruction of the cells of the brain. The lesion in the lesion changes the ion composition, which leads to a change in the threshold of excitability of surrounding cells and an increase in the electrical activity of the affected area of the brain. The so-called foci of the epileptic activity of the brain, which periodically discharged by convulsions, and then accumulate charge again. As the area of the injuries hesitated from injury, the ion composition of the brain cells is normalized, which inevitably leads to the disappearance of the focus of high convulsive activity and curable of the patient. Intracranial hemorrhage Intracranted hemorrhage is more often a complication of hypertensive disease, in which the aneurysms are formed in the brain vessels ( Sections of the thinned vascular wall ). Almost always intracranial hemorrhage is accompanied by loss of consciousness. With the next lifting of blood pressure, the aneurysm and the blood yield in the brain substance occurs. First, the blood presses on the nervous tissue, thus disrupting its integrity. Secondly, the torn vessel for a while loses the ability to supply a certain section of the brain, leading to oxygen starvation. In both cases, the brain tissue is damage or directly, or indirectly by changing the ionic composition of the intercellular and intracellular fluid. The threshold of excitability in the focus of the affected cells and the formation of a zone of high convulsive activity is occurring. The more likely hemorrhage, the more likely it will lead to the development of convulsion. Card-brain thromboembolia The control of this disease is extremely relevant in modern society, since it is caused by a sedentary lifestyle, overweight, improper nutrition, smoking and abuse of alcoholic beverages. Through a variety of mechanisms in any part of the body, blood clot is formed ( Thromb ) who grow and can achieve quite large sizes. By virtue of the anatomical features of the legs of the feet are the most frequent venue for the formation of thromboms. Under certain circumstances, the thrombus is broken and, reaching a brain, clogs the clearance of one of the vessels. Short time ( 15 - 30 seconds ) The symptoms of the hypoxia of the affected brain section appear. Most often, the hypoxia of a certain section of the brain leads to the disappearance of the function that it provides, for example, to the loss of speech, the disappearance of the tone of the muscles, etc. However, sometimes the affected area of the brain becomes a focus of high convulsive activity, which was mentioned earlier. Foot cramps are more often occurring when the blood cloud of vessels that feed the lateral part of the presenter sinking, since this brain department is responsible for arbitrary movements of the legs. The restoration of blood supply to the affected focus leads to gradual resorption and disappearance of convulsion.
Excess acetylcholine in the synaptic gap
Acetylcholine is the main mediator involved in the transfer of momentum from the nerve to the muscular cell. The structure providing this transmission is called electrochemical synaps. The mechanism of this transmission lies in the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic slit, followed by its impact on the muscular cell membrane and the generation of the action potential. Under certain conditions, an excess of the mediator can accumulate in the synaptic slit, which inevitably leading to a more frequent and strong muscle reduction, up to the development of seizures, including the lower extremities. The following states cause cramps by increasing the amount of acetylcholine in the synaptic slit:
- overdose of drugs of a group of cholinesterase blockers;
- Miellaxation of depolarizing drugs;
- Magnesium deficiency in the body.
Overdose of drugs of group of cholinesterase blockers Holinesterase is an enzyme destroying acetylcholine. Thanks to Holinesterase, acetylcholine is not delayed long in the synaptic crack, which results in muscle relaxation and her rest. The preparations of the group of cholinesterase blockers bind this enzyme, leading to an increase in the concentration of acetylcholine in the synaptic slit and an increase in the tone of the muscular cell. By the mechanism of action, cholinesterase blockers are divided into reversible and irreversible. Reversible cholinesterase blockers apply mainly for medical purposes. Representatives of this group are prozerne, physostigmine, galantamine, etc.. Their use is justified in the case of a postoperative passer of the intestine, in the restorative period after a brain stroke, with a bladder atony. Overdose of these medicines or unreasonable application leads first to the sense of painful muscle stiffness, and then to cramps. The irreversible cholinesterase blockers are differently called phosphorran substances and belong to the class of chemical weapons. The most well-known representatives of this group are the combat poisoning substances in Zarin and Zoman, as well as all familiar insecticide - dichlofos. Zarin and Zoman are prohibited in most countries of the world as a non-needed type of weapons. Dichlofos and other related compounds are often used in the economy and become the cause of household poisoning. The mechanism of their action lies in the durable binding of cholinesterase without the possibility of its independent disconnection. The associated cholinesterase loses its function and leads to the accumulation of acetylcholine. Clinically occurs the spastic paralysis of the whole body muscles. Death comes from paralysis of the diaphragm and violation of the process of arbitrary breathing. Miolaxation of depolarizing drugs Mioroxation is used when performing anesthesia before surgery and leads to a better anesthesia. There are two main varieties of muscle relaxants - depolarizing and nonpolarizing. Each of the types of minelaxants has strict readings to use. The most famous representative of depolarizing minelaxants is Sucmametonia Chloride ( Dintin ). This drug is used for short operations ( Maximum up to 15 minutes ). After leaving the anesthesia with parallel use of this Miorolaxant, the patient has a constant muscle stiffness for some time, as after severe and long-term physical work. In aggregate with the rest of the predisposing factors, the above feeling can move into convulsions. Magnesium deficiency in the body Magnesium is one of the most important electrolytes in the body. One of its functions is the opening of the channels of the presynaptic membrane for the inverse entrance of an unused mediator in the end of the axon ( Central Process of the Nervous Cell, Responsible for the Transmission of the Electric Pulse ). With a lack of magnesium, the specified channels remain closed, which leads to accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic slit. As a result, even a slight physical activity after a short time provokes the appearance of convulsion. Magnesium deficiency is often developing with defective nutrition. This problem comprehends mostly girls seeking to limit themselves in food for the benefit of the figure. Some of them in addition to the diet use adsorbents, the most famous of which is activated carbon. This drug is definitely extremely effective in a variety of situations, however, its side effect is removal from the body and useful ions. With a one-time use, seizures does not arise, but with long-term use, the risk of their appearance increases.
Reducing the mindset of myocyte
Muscle cell, like any other cell cage, has a specific excitability threshold. Despite the fact that this threshold is strictly specific for each type of cells, it is not constant. It depends on the difference in the concentration of certain ions inside and outside the cells and the prosperous operation of cell pumping systems. The main reasons for the development of convulsion due to a decrease in the instance of the instance of myocytes are:
- electrolyte imbalance;
Electrolyte imbalance The difference in the concentration of electrolytes creates a certain charge on the surface of the cell. In order for the cell to be initiated, it is necessary that the impulse obtained by it was equal to or more by force than the charge of the cell membrane. In other words, the pulse must overcome a certain threshold value in order to bring the cell to the excitation state. This threshold is not stable, and depends on the concentration of electrolytes in the ambient space of space. When the electrolyte balance is changed in the body, the excitability threshold decreases, weaker impulses cause muscle contraction. The abbreviation frequency also increases, which leads to the state of constant excitation of muscle cell - cramps. Violations often lead to a change in the electrolyte balance are vomiting, diarrhea, bleeding, shortness of breath and intoxication. Hyovitaminosis Vitamins play an extremely important role in the development of the body and maintaining its normal performance. They are part of enzymes and coefficers performing the function of maintaining the constancy of the inner environment of the body. On the contractile function of the muscles, the deficiency of vitamins A, B, D, and E is more affected. At the same time, the integrity of cell membranes suffers and, as a result, there is a decrease in the excitability threshold, leading to convulsions.
Reducing the concentration of ATP.
ATP is the main chemical carrier of energy in the body. This acid is synthesized in special organelles - mitochondria present in each cell. Energy release occurs when the ATP is cleaving on ADF ( adenosinefosphate ) and phosphate. Selected energy is spent on the work of most systems that support the viability of the cell. In the muscular cell, calcium ions normally lead to its reduction, and ATP is responsible for relaxation. If we consider that the change in the blood concentration in the blood extremely rarely leads to convulsions, since calcium is not spent and is not formed during the operation of the muscle, the decrease in the concentration of ATP is the direct cause of convulsion, since this resource is consumed. It should be noted that convulsions are developing only in the case of limiting exhaustion of ATP, responsible for the relaxation of the muscle. The restoration of the ATP concentration requires a certain time that corresponds to rest after hard work. As long as the normal concentration of ATP is restored, the muscle is not relaxing. It is for this reason that the breathed muscle is firm to the touch and Rigidna ( Icelessly extension ). Diseases and states leading to a decrease in the concentration of ATP and the appearance of convulsion are:
Diabetes Sugar diabetes is a heavy endocrine disease leading to a number of acute and deferred complications. Diabetes requires a patient high discipline, since only the correct diet and timely reception of drugs in the necessary concentration will be able to compensate for the lack of insulin in the body. However, no matter how much the patient has made efforts to control the level of glycemia, it will not be able to completely avoid jumps of blood glucose concentration. This is explained by the fact that this level depends on the set of factors that are not always controlled. These factors include stress, time of day, the composition of food consumed, the type of work that the organism performs, etc. One of the formidable complications developing in diabetes are diabetic angiopathy. As a rule, with good control over the disease, angiopathy develops no earlier than for the fifth year. Distinguish micro and macro angiopathy. The mechanism of the damaging action lies in the defeat, in one case, the main mainstream, and in the other - small vessels that feed the tissues of the body. Muscles that normally consume most of the energy begin to suffer from insufficient blood circulation. With a lack of blood circulation, less oxygen comes to tissues and less ATP is produced, in particular in muscle cells. According to the mechanism mentioned earlier, the lack of ATP leads to the muscle spa. Lower hollow vein syndrome This pathology is characteristic only for pregnant women and develops, on average, starting with the second half of pregnancy. By this time, the fruit reaches the size of sufficient to start gradually shifting the internal organs of the mother. Along with the organs, large vessels of the abdominal cavity are squeezed - the abdominal aorta and the lower hollow vein. The abdominal aorta has a thick wall and also pulsates that it does not allow to develop the blood of blood at this level. The wall of the lower vein is thinner, and the blood flow in it laminar ( constant, not pulsating ). This makes the venous wall vulnerable to compression. As the fetus grows, the sickness of the lower vein is enhanced. At the same time, the circulation of this segment is progressing. Blood stagnation in the lower extremities and edema develop. In such conditions, the nutrition of tissues and their saturation of oxygen gradually decreases. These factors in aggregate lead to a decrease in the amount of ATP in the cell and an increase in the probability of the development of convulsion. Chronic heart failure This disease is characterized by the inability of the heart sufficiently perform the pump function and maintain the optimal level of blood circulation. This leads to the development of edema starting from the lower limbs and rise above as the progression of the heart function progress. In conditions of stagnation of blood in the lower extremities, the deficiency of oxygen and nutrients is developing. In such conditions, the operability of the muscles of the lower extremities is noticeably declining, the ATP deficiency comes faster and the likelihood of seizures occurs. Phlebeurysm The varicose extension is a portion of the thinned venous wall, protruding beyond the normal circuits of the vessel. It develops more often in people whose activity is associated with many hours standing on the legs, in patients with chronic heart failure, in patients with obesity. In the first case, their development mechanism is associated with a constantly increased load on venous vessels and their expansion. In the case of heart failure, blood is developing in blood vessels. In obesity, the load on the legs significantly increases, the volume of blood increases, and the diameter of the veins is forced to adjust it. The speed of blood flow in varicosely extended veins is reduced, blood is thick, and thrombus are formed, blocking those veins. In such conditions, the blood is looking for another path of outflow, but soon high pressure and leads to the emergence of new varicoses. So the vicious circle is closed, the result of which is the progression of blood stagnation in the lower limbs. Blood stagnation leads to a decrease in the development of ATP and the increase in the likelihood of seizures. Thrombophlebit Thrombophlebitis is inflammation of the venous vessel. As a rule, thrombophlebitis accompanies varicose veins, since the mechanisms of their education intersect. In both cases, a starting factor is a stagnation of blood circulation. With varicose veins, it leads to the expansion of the veins, and with thrombophlebitis - to inflammation. The inflamed Vienna is squeezed with an edema and deforming, which will also suffer from its throughput, exacerbating blood stagnation and again progresses inflammation. Another vicious circle leads to the fact that it is almost impossible to completely cure thrombophlebitis and varicose veins. When using certain drugs, it is possible to reduce inflammation, but not the disappearance of the factors that caused it. The mechanism of convulsion, as in previous cases, is associated with blood stagnation in the lower limbs. Supporting atherosclerosis This disease is the scourge of the countries with a high level of development, since its occurrence and severity grows together with the level of well-being of the population. It is in such countries that the most high percentage of people with obesity. With excess nutrition, smoking and a sequiguous lifestyle on the walls of the arteries, atherosclerotic plaques are formed, reduced vessel's passability. The most frequent localization is iliac, femoral and popliteal arteries. As a result of the formation of plaque, the bandwidth of the artery becomes limited. If, with normal load, the muscle tissue receives enough oxygen and nutrients, then with an increase in the load, their deficiency is gradually formed. Muscle incommunicating oxygen produces less ATP, which at a certain time, provided that the intensity of the work will lead to the development of the feet seizures. Anemia Anemia is called a decrease in the number of erythrocytes ( Red blood taurus ) and / or hemoglobin in the blood. Erythrocytes are cells containing up to 98% hemoglobin protein, and it, in turn, is able to bind oxygen and transport it to peripheral tissues. Anemia can develop for many reasons, such as acute and chronic bleeding, violation of erythrocyte ripening processes, genetic hemoglobin defect, long-term reception of certain medicines ( Pyrazolone derivatives ) and much more. Anemia leads to a decrease in gas exchange between air, blood and tissues. The amount of oxygen supplied to the periphery is not enough to ensure the optimal needs of the muscles. As a result, a smaller number of ATP molecules are formed in mitochondria, and its lack increases the risks of seizures. Early postoperative period This condition is not a disease, but it deserves close attention if it concerns convulsion. Operations of medium and high degrees of complexity are usually accompanied by a certain blood loss. In addition, blood pressure can be artificially reduced for a long time to conduct special steps of the operation. The mentioned factors in combination with the complete immobility of the patient for several hours of operational intervention create an increased risk of blood cloves in the lower limbs. This risk increases in patients with atherosclerosis or varicose veins. The postoperative period, which occupies in some cases for a long time, requires a patient compliance with strict beddown and small physical activity. In these conditions, blood circulation in the lower limbs is significantly slowed down, and blood clots or blood clots are formed. The blood closures are partially or completely overlap the blood flow in the vessel and cause hypoxia ( Low oxygen content in tissues ) surrounding muscles. As in previous diseases, a decrease in oxygen concentration in muscle tissue, especially in conditions of increased loads, leads to the appearance of convulsion. Hyperthyroidism Hyperthyroidism is a disease associated with increasing thyroid hormone products. Due to the occurrence and mechanism of development, the primary, secondary and tertiary hyperthyroidism differ. Primary hyperthyroidism is characterized by a disorder at the level of the thyroid gland, secondary - at the level of the pituitary and tertiary - at the level of the hypothalamus. An increase in the concentration of thyroxine hormones and triiodothyronine leads to tachipsychia ( Acceleration of mental processes ) as well as to the noiselessness and state of constant anxiety. These patients are much more active than healthy people. The threshold of excitability of their nerve cells is reduced, which leads to an increase in cell excitability. All the above factors lead to more intensive muscle work. In aggregate with other predisposing factors, hyperthyroidism may well cause convulsion. Excessive physical exertion Unbearable and long-term exercise for an unprepared organism are definitely harmful. Muscles are quickly depleted, the entire supply of ATP is consumed. If you do not give the muscles to leisure, for which some amount of energy carriers data is again synthesized, then the convulsion is very likely to develop. Their probability is repeatedly increasing in a cold medium, for example, in cold water. This is due to the fact that the cooling of the muscle leads to a decrease in the rate of metabolism in it. Accordingly, ATP remains the same, and its replenishment processes slow down. That is why convulsions often occur in the water. Flatfoot This pathology lies in the improper formation of the foot of the foot. As a result, the foot support of the foot is in places, physiologically not adapted for them. The muscles of the foot, which are out of the arch, have to carry a load on which they are not designed. As a result, their rapid fatigue occurs. The tired muscle is deprived of ATP and at the same time loses the ability to relax. In addition to the defeat of the foot, the flatfoot is indirectly reflected in the state of the knee and femoral joints. Since the stop of the foot is not formed correctly, it does not perform a depreciation function. As a result, the above joints are subjected to greater concussion and rather fail, causing the development of arthrosis and arthritis.
Genetic defect of one of the contractile proteins
This category of diseases refers to incurable. It consotes the fact that the frequency of the disease in the population is low and the likelihood of the disease is 1: 200 - 300 million. This group includes various enzymes and diseases of abnormal proteins. One of the diseases of this group, manifested by convulsions, is a turret syndrome ( Giller de la Tourette ). Due to the mutation of specific genes in the seventh and eleventh pairs of chromosomes in the brain, anomalous connections are formed, leading to the appearance of involuntary movements in a patient ( Tikov ) and shouts ( More often, obscene ). In the case when TIC affects the lower limb, it can manifest itself in the form of periodic seizures.
First aid for convulsion
The main task of a person providing assistance in convulsion to himself or someone else is recognizing the cause of convulsions. In other words, it is necessary to distinguish whether the convulsion is a manifestation of a partial epileptic segment or caused by some other causes. Depending on the seizure mechanism, there are at least two algorithms for assistance, radically different from each other. The first distinctive feature of epileptic convulsion is the stage. The first stage is clonic, that is, manifested by alternating rhythmic cuts and muscle relaxation. The duration of the clone stage, on average, 15 - 20 seconds. The second stage of epileptic convulsion is tonic. With it there is a long muscle spasm, on average, up to 10 seconds, after which the muscle is relaxing, and the attack ends. The second feature of epileptic convulsion is the dependence of their appearance from certain, strictly individual for each patient starting factors. The most common of them are bright flickering light, loud sounds, a certain taste and smell. The third feature is manifested only in the case of the transition of partial seizures into generalized and lies in the loss of the patient's consciousness at the end of the attack. The loss of consciousness is often accompanied by involuntary urination and the discharge of the stool. After the arrival, the phenomenon of retrograde amnesia is observed, in which the patient does not remember that he suffered an attack. If, according to the above criteria, the patient has a partial attack of epileptic convulsions, it is, first of all, it is necessary to put on a chair, a bench or land in order to avoid injuries with a possible fall. Next, it is necessary to wait for the end of the attack without taking any action. In the case of dissemination of seizures and the transition to the generalized form, it is necessary to put the patient to the side of the side and put a blanket, a shirt, a shirt, or grab it with hands to avoid damage during an attack. It is important not to fix the head, but it is to protect against shocks, because with strong fixing the risk of cervical vertebrae is appear, inevitably leading to the death of the patient. In the presence of a patient a generalized attack, convulsion is equally important as soon as possible to call ambulance, since without the introduction of certain drugs, the likelihood of repeated seizures. At the end of the attack, it is necessary to try to find out what factor could provoke an attack and try to eliminate it. When the cause of convulsion is not related to epilepsy, the following measures must be taken. First, you need to give the limbs to the highlight. It provides an improved blood outflow and eliminates stagnation. Secondly, you should take up the fingers of the feet and produce dorsal flexion of the feet ( towards the knee ) In two stages - first bend half to bend and release, and then slowly bend slowly and retain in such a position until the convulsis is stopped. This manipulation leads to a violent muscle stretching, which, as a sponge draws blood rich in oxygen. In parallel it is useful to produce a light massage of the limb, since it improves microcirculation and speeds up the recovery process. Plipks and injections have a distracting effect and interrupt the reflex chain, closing the pain from muscle spasm.
Treatment of cramps
Treatment cramp must obey the following rule. The attack of convulsion must be relocated primarily because it is a stressful state for the body. The causes caused its reasons are treated in the second place. If it is impossible to eliminate the causes of the patient should receive a constant pathogenetic and symptomatic treatment aimed at reducing the likelihood and severity severity.
Medical treatment of frequent cramps
Medical treatment of convulsionally divided into the interruption of attacks and treatment aimed at preventing them. Medicinal intervention is performed only in the case of a patient a partial or generalized epileptic seizure. In convulsions of other origin, their interruption is performed using the manipulations specified in the "First Aid for Sustor" section.
Preparations used to relieve an attack of epileptic cramps
|Drug group||Elimination of symptoms||Mechanism of action||A drug||Mode of application|
|Benzodiazepines||Partial or generalized cramps, psychomotor arousal, insomnia.||Pronounced sedative, miorelaxing and anxiolytic ( Elimination of fear ) Action.||Injection||10 mg - 2 ml intramuscularly or intravenously slowly!|
|Derivatives gamke ( Gamma aminobachary acid )||Insomnia, convulsions, sharp psychosis, rehabilitation after stroke and brain injuries.||Strong sleeping pills, sedative, muscle relaxing effect. Moderate nootropic and antihypoxic effect.||Injection||2 g - 10 ml intravenously slowly!|
|Microelements, vasodilators, anticonvulsant||Eclampsia ( Seizures in pregnant women ), hypertensive disease, arrhythmia, poisoning of heavy metals salts.||Anticonvulsant, antiarrhythmic, hypotensive, antispasmodic and sedative effect.||Injection||5 ml - 25% in breeding with saline intravenously slowly!|
Preparations used to eliminate causes of convulsion
|Drug group||Elimination of symptoms||Mechanism of action||A drug||Mode of application|
|Barbiturates||Partial or generalized cramps, psychomotor arousal, insomnia.||Increased sensitivity of gamke receptors. Blocking some exciting mediators.||Phenobarbital sodium||0.05 - 0.1 g 2 times a day. Inside.|
|Benzodiazepines||Partial or generalized cramps, psychomotor arousal, insomnia.||Pronounced sedative, miorelaxing and anxiolytic ( Elimination of fear ) Action.||Pills||2 - 10 mg per day in 2 - 3 receptions. Inside.|
|Microelements, vasodilators, anticonvulsant||Eclampsia and preeclampsia.||Acceleration of the reverse movement of acetylcholine per presyptic membrane.||Magnesium Sulfat.||5 ml is a 25% solution in breeding with saline intravenously 1 - 2 times a day.|
|Valproic acid derivatives||Small and large convulsive seizures.||Central Miorolaxing and sedative action.||Syrup||20 - 30 mg per day in 2 reception. Inside.|
|Sodium Valproat ( Depakin )|
|Neuroleptic||Acute psychosis, insomnia, psychomotor excitement.||Strong neuroleptic, antihistamine, and antiemetic effect. Moderate hypotensive effect.||Injection||2 ml - 2.5% solution intravenously in breeding with saline 2 - 3 times a day.|
|Fibrinolytics||Cramps caused by ischemic stroke.||Destruction of thrombus outside and inside.||Injection||500,000 units for 2 hours, in breeding with saline or 5% glucose solution. Intravenously inkido.|
|Cardiac glycosides||Causes due to poor blood circulation during heart failure.||Antiarrhythmic and cardiimulating effect.||Pills||The selection of the dose is carried out individually, according to the selected digitalization scheme.|
|Charity preparations||Convulsions caused by anemia.||Removal of iron deficiency.||Pills||1 tablet 1 - 2 times a day. Inside.|
Diet with frequent cramps
To this day, not a single food product was revealed, which would cause the lower limb convulsions with a high proportion. However, completely excluding the influence of the diet is also not worth it. As mentioned above, convulsions can develop because of atherosclerosis and obesity. Accordingly, the diet should be aimed at maximally prevent these diseases. The following recommendations will help to adhere to rational nutrition:
- The diet must contain approximately so many calories as the body spends per day. Daily calorie intake can be treated according to special tables.
- In addition to calories, it is necessary to ensure that approximately a third of food was vegetable origin.
- The rational nutrition implies the separation of the daily amount of food on 5 - 6 servings, of which 1 - 2 portions should consist of various porridge containing the fiber-needed for high-quality digestion.
- Dinner should take place for at least 2 hours before going to bed.
Mode of work and rest with frequent cramps
One of the factors provoking the development of convulsion is excessive physical exertion. In aggregate with a bad rest, this pathology becomes even more likely, since in this case the factor of the fatigue is entered into force. If this happens, then the nervous system suffers primarily, the most frequent manifestations of the defeat of which are neurosis, nervous ticks and periodic cramps. The following rules will help avoid cramps with regular exercise:
- Large weight is better divided into several parts or lift with an extraneous help.
- Transferred and lifting weights should be carried out with a straight back at the position of the shipment as close as possible to the central axis of the body - the spine.
- Every 30 - 40 minutes of work must be accompanied by a short break.
- Lunch breaks should take at least 1 hour.
- Before going to bed, it is desirable to take a warm shower, as it contributes to a better and in-depth sleep.
- Sleep should last at least 6 hours a day. The optimal duration of sleep is 8 hours.
- The fallback and awakening should be carried out at the same time, as it contributes to the normalization of sleep cycles, which has a beneficial effect on its productivity.
Prevention of repetitions of convulsion
Frequent convulsions largely violate the quality of life. In addition, they tend to highlight and develop some complications in the absence of proper treatment. Therefore, the main role in the fight against convulsions is given to the prevention.
What needs to be done to avoid repetitions convulsion?
- observe the regime of labor and rest;
- eat rationally;
- Avoid a sharp load on the muscles without their preheating.
What can provoke a repetition of convulsions?
- transition of some diseases from acute flow into chronic;
- Excessive physical exertion;
- Bright shimmering light, loud sounds, sharp smells and more ( in the case of epileptic cramps );
- physical work in the cold environment;
- poor control over the flow of diabetes;
- Edema of the feet of various origin.
Why is the convulsion reduced muscles in a dream?
Although there is a common version of the effect of the deficit of minerals and vitamins, there is no serious evidence in its favor. The results of large-scale studies prove that therapy with vitamin and mineral additives (calcium, magnesium, vitamin B12) does not help facilitate the state with most patients.
What are the reasons for the cramps stop at night, Krampi calm and femoral muscles?
According to the review of the causes of night Krampi, the main factor is the day load. Athletes have a higher risk to experience spasms at night after increased activity during the day.
Excess voltage, increased intensity of exercises may also cause cramps and during periods of wakefulness.
Muscle fatigue, for example, with a long static pose, can also cause night cramps.
- Muscle load lack
Conversely, the predisposition of muscle night spasms is due to insufficient activity. So, a long-lasting seat can cause a reduction in muscle fibers.
Lack of physical activity, when a person does not stretch for some time, does not use active muscles, increases the risk of convulsion, and in this case they often arise during rest.
Poses in which the bloodstream is limited in the limbs can also be provoking convulsions factor: if you lie down, crossed legs or pressure on foot. In such cases, it is worth experimenting with the body position in bed.
As people agreed in people can occur seizures in their feet at night. As noted in a review published in the BMC Family Practice magazine, up to 33% of people over 50 are experiencing chronic night crashes.
The connection of pregnancy and foot cramps has long been known. It is due to increased nutritional needs and hormonal changes in the body of the future mother.
- Side effects of drugs
Many drugs cause muscle spasms as side effects. As a rule, it is written in the instructions for the medicine.
- General condition of the organism
Chronic seizures of legs are a frequent consequence of cardiovascular pathologies, diabetes, alcoholism, renal and liver failure, spinal spinal problems, flatfoot, hypothyroidism, osteoarthrosis, etc.
The overwhelming majority of people at least once in their lives came across an unpleasant sensation when legs drives. Speaking by medical language, such convulsions are an involuntary reduction in the icy muscles. As a result, a person is experiencing painful sensations.
It is especially unpleasant when convulsions arise at night. If there is often legs, it is necessary to deal with the reasons for such a phenomenon and go through the appropriate treatment.
The first specialist to which you need to contact is the therapist. The doctor will appoint a number of studies and analyzes, in particular:
- Clinical blood test, thanks to which you can learn about the presence of an inflammatory process in the body and get a general idea of the patient's state;
- blood test on sugar is carried out in order to exclude diabetes;
- General urine analysis and urine study on Nechiphenko - is assigned to determine the kidney problems;
- Biochemical blood test - allows you to evaluate how the kidneys and the liver are functioning;
- Doppler (Ultrasonic Study of the veins) is carried out to check blood flow in order to determine likely venous insufficiency.
It is possible that in some situations the attending physician may appoint a number of additional surveys. After receiving the results of analyzes and research, as well as the collection of anamnesis, the patient is sent to a narrow specialist for appointing correct treatment.
First aid for cramps in the legs
Muscular spasms are quite tangible, delivering a strong pain. If this happens, you can try one of the following ways:
Pull the foot of the sick feet towards yourself and stay in a similar position for a while. Also it is necessary to stretch the calf muscle, it is necessary to do it from the bottom up. Next, the circular motions knead the stop to normalize blood flow.
You can try to pinch the shin of the sick leg. Some advise to prick this place with a pin or needle, but thus increases the risk of infection.
Twisted muscles need to be tangible with hand and not let go until it starts walked.
Freed from shoes, you need to get up on the cold floor. So the blood circulation will increase, which will contribute to the rapid muscle relaxation.
How to be treated when legs legs?
If the leg drives, first of all it turns out the reason, and only the correct treatment can be appointed. Naturally, the doctor should do it.
Next, consider the treatment options that can help cope with the problem.
In most cases, if the legs drives at night, treatment is carried out by conservative methods. The following drugs are prescribed more often:
- Vitamin complex;
- means whose action is aimed at relaxing intense muscle tissue;
- Medical preparations that improve blood flow in the calf muscles and footsteps.
In addition to medicines, in order to relieve pain in the legs, the doctor may appoint a special set of exercises, in particular, we are talking about therapeutic gymnastics.
The most popular complex includes the following actions:
The initial position is standing, the legs need to keep together, and the hands parallel to the body. Next, 4-5 times on the breath rise on the socks, and in exhale it is desolation.
The initial position is as in the previous exercise. In the breath you need to stand on the socks, and in exhale slowly move to the heels. Exercise make 4-5 times.
For two minutes, mimic walking, while socks from the floor do not leave, and only heels rises in turn.
The initial position is lying on his back, legs - straight, hands - parallel to the body or behind the head. Feet are raised by 45 degrees, and in such a position, the "scissors" exercise. It is advisable to repeat 2-3 times to 6-8 moving.
The initial position is lying on the back, legs bent in the knees and raised, hands - parallel to the body. Exercise "Bike" repeat the same time as in the previous example.
When legs, you can try several methods of traditional medicine. In general, they are all safe and will not bring the patient harm.
Lemon juice. Foot feet are treated with lemon juice twice a day - in the morning and in the evening. You need to wait for moisture dry, after which you can argue. Such procedures are carried out for 14 days.
Lavr. Lavra oil helps from convulsion. For its preparation, 50 g of dry laurel sheet is taken, placed in a glass container, where 250 ml of unrefined sunflower oil is poured. Capacity with a mixture is sent to appease for 12 days in a dark place. Next, the tool is filtering and rubbed the sore place.
Celandine. From Cellity, you need to squeeze the juice and mix it with a vaseline in a 1: 2 ratio. The resulting mixture rubs the sore place every evening.
Long husk. A teaspoon of husks poured 250 ml of boiling water and insist for 10 minutes. The decoction drink overnight. Such a recipe will allow to get rid of not only from cramps in the legs, but also from headaches.
Diet with cramps in the legs
Often convulsions happen in patients who are incorrectly powered and in the diet of which there are no certain substances. In particular, we are talking about the following elements:
- Magnesium (nuts, sunflower seeds, carrots, green onions);
- potassium (kuraga, bananas, beef liver);
- calcium (sesame, black bread, nuts);
- Vitamin D (herring, cheese, butter);
- Vitamin B6 (poultry, salmon, walnuts);
- Vitamin E (milk, fresh vegetables, liver).
Legs at night: Treatment
To assign competent treatment when the legs holds at night, it is necessary to find out the causes of the problem. As a rule, the nature of the main disease is taken into account.
Often, as an additional treatment for spasms arising in the legs at night, the doctor prescribes a corresponding diet with a large content of vitamins.
Video gymnastics for legs - full range of exercises:
Suggesogues in the legs arise at any age, but most of all annoy people aged 50. Causes are involuntary to reduce the cross-striped muscles of the legs, which can be called different reasons. Reducing skeletal muscles are bredity and are often unbearable painful.
Numerous causes of muscle spasms are well studied by medicine, easily adjusted, quickly treated. If you are constantly tormented by limb cuts, then be sure to consult a doctor who will help you solve this problem.
In this article we will look at why the legs are driving the legs, especially at night at the age of 50. What is the reason for this unpleasant symptom, and what will happen at home so that the convulsions are no longer disturbed.
What are the reasons arise cramps in the legs?
The reasons for which the muscle cramps develop at night are developing in disorders of the electrolyte balance of muscle cells, the inadequacy of the blood supply to soft tissues or neurological problems.
These three groups of reasons may occur both isolated and in various combinations, accompanying congenital anomalies or acquired diseases. It is not so important, what is the age of the patient, since the mechanisms of development of myoclonies are almost identical for children, adults and the elderly (including aged 50).
- Overvoltage of muscles (for example, with long-term work in the garden in the garden or professional cramps of the muscles of the hands in porn, or, let's say, musicians);
- A sharp rise in temperature leads to hypertermic seizures. Such a state may occur with heat, solar impact, as well as for diseases accompanied by an increase in temperature.
- Dehydration of the body. With an active sweating, there is a significant loss of trace elements that ensure healthy muscle functioning. Therefore, it is so important to drink a day to 2.5 liters of water, especially in the hot summer season and during active sports.
- One of the reasons for the fact that the legs takes place at night, it can become a starting varicose veins. Other symptoms of this pathology are swelling, gravity in the legs, fatigue.
- Infectious damage to the nervous system is also a fairly frequent cause of seizures in the legs. Such a lesion can be with influenza, as well as other infections.
- Stresses. During the emotional stress, the nervous breakdown occurs intensive load on the entire body of the person, primarily on the nerve endings responsible for contraction of the muscles of the body. The oversight of the stress hormone (cortisol) leads to a violation of the balance of micro and macroelements, leads to a lack of calcium in the body needed for healthy functioning, voltage and relaxation of muscles.
- Disorders of the biochemical or electrolyte composition of blood (with loss of calcium salts, potassium, magnesium, lack of vitamin D).
The lack of vitamins and minerals can be caused:
- A stressful state in which cortisol is produced in large quantities (it worsens the absorption of calcium in the intestines, contributes to its removal with urine);
- A long-term intake of drugs that make suction and further absorption of magnesium in the body. An antacid means of Maalox and an almagel, which are used for heartburn, lead to a similar effect. Their action is to wipe the stomach mucosa to protect against aggressive impact of hydrochloric acid. At the same time, the suction of trace elements and vitamins occurs. Eufillin and insulin remove magnesium from cells.
- The use of proteins in large quantities (glucose is absorbed not from carbohydrates, but from body margins of the body, which is why ketones appear in the blood, which contribute to the removal of calcium with urine);
- Women's pregnancy in non-compliance with balanced nutrition (lack of calcium, magnesium);
- A long lack of impact on the organism of the sun's rays (the lack of vitamin D, leading to the deterioration of calcium absorption) - residents of northern latitude are subject to this;
- Increased sweating, which leads to an excretion along with then magnesium, as a result of which the deficit of this trace element in the body is created.
Secondary convulsions are more dangerous, as their appearance at night can be due to the most diverse diseases. Among them, diabetes, disorders in the work of the central nervous system and the thyroid gland, varicose veins, as well as some infectious diseases.
Very often they are disturbed by pregnant women whose weight increases, which leads to an increase in the load on the muscles of the legs. We also note that the cause can be the poisoning of drugs, lead, mercury.
At night, drives legs, from what and what to do?
If I drove my leg at night, you need to spend several events to help eliminate seizures. First you need to get up to the wrong foot on something cold. At the same time, you should try to pull the sock as much as possible. Then you can try slightly sit down, relying mainly on that leg, which brought the cramp. Spasm decreases with a slight massage of the affected place.
They also advise himself strongly pinch the tense muscle or slightly picked up a sharp object, for example, a needle or pin - spasm must stop. To prevent recurrence, it is necessary to smear a sore place with a warming ointment or to lose alcohol.
Treatment of cramps in the legs
The main condition for successful treatment is to determine the cause of convulsion. To find out why the foot drives the legs at night, the doctor may assign blood research on the level of magnesium and calcium, neuromiography and other examination.
- the impact on the cause (treatment of varicose veins, correction of flatfoot, sedative therapy during stress);
- A diet rich in vitamins and microelements.
If at home dried up, then you need to massate it, thoroughly grind muscles, get up, walk. If muscle cramps are worried at night, it is better to sleep in warm socks or golf. To remove pain, use any "burning" ointment, such as Finalgon.
When the cause of convulsion is a lack of vitamins, review your diet. It is important to use products rich in magnesium, calcium, vitamins D, B6 and so on. Therefore, it is useful to rummage with bran, dried, raisins, fish, bananas, peanuts. Eat dairy products every day - cottage cheese, solid cheese, drink milk.
To at night, it does not bind legs, regardless of the causes of convulsive cuts of the lower extremities before bed it is useful to do simple exercises:
- Press the heels to the floor, stand 10-20 seconds.
- Repeat the exercise, bringing the socks together, the heels apart.
- Repeat the exercise, but now socks apart, heels together.
After the working day, try to remove the accumulated voltage using such exercises:
- Bend slowly thumbs down, and then quickly straighten them.
- Pass on the external inner sides of the stop.
- Sit on the bench, lift your feet and "write" numbers from 1 to 10.
And one more exercise option:
- Sitting, bending legs and stretch for 8-12 seconds behind the fingers of the feet on themselves, stretching the icy muscle. We repeat 3-6 times with a break of 5-10 seconds.
- Standing, rising on socks, stretch with hands up, deep breathing. Then omit the heels to the floor. We repeat 3-6 times with a break of 5-10 seconds.
- Standing, the slopes of the body and stretch their hands to the nose, without taking the heels from the floor, stretching the calf muscles. We repeat 3-6 times with a break of 5-10 seconds.
When severe physical work, when you have to stand for a long time on your feet, find an opportunity for a holiday for 5-10 minutes: sit down or take the position of lying with raised legs. At the same time, you can make listed exercises.
So that the feet crashes are not disturbed, prophylaxis should be adhered to:
- Wear only comfortable low-heeled shoes - this will prevent not only convulsions, but also the extension of the veins;
- Avoid physical exertion associated with long standing on the legs or long walking.
- Reduce to a minimum consumption of coffee and sugar, especially before bedtime;
- Refuse smoking.
- Daily, in the evenings, contrast baths, as well as baths with sea salt and heralds of medicinal herbs, possessing
- anticonvulsant action (horsetail, peppermint, Valerian).
It is also very important to eat and get enough vitamins and minerals. The lack of potassium in the body can cause cramps in caviar and feet. Dehydration can also be a cause of convulsion. The body needs water and other liquids, especially those that provide it with electrolytes.
Vitamin D is also important for the health of the feet and bones. Smoking and alcohol consumption can lead to dehydration.